Glossaire de A à Z


Target species

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Species on which the fisherman, a priori, decided to focus his fishing activity and for which he has prepared suitable equipment.
Source
According to Ifremer

Taxa

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Each hierarchical level used in biological classifications to regroup species with common features: class, order, family, genus, species, etc.

Source
According to AFB

Taxonomic variety

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Constitutive metric for calculating the Standardized Global Biological Index (IBGN). It is the total number of taxa collected in a sample, whether represented by 1 or n individuals.
Source
According to AFB

Technical scenario

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Set of technical specifications that describe the interface (questions and answers) of a web service. A scenario prepared by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) is a specification document that describes the procedures for the exchange of data of a web service based on a format. It is especially used for showing the data stored in databases via Internet. A technical scenario is based on one or more interchange scenarios and is materialized by files in WSDL and PDF formats.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Technical Water Committee

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Committee established by Decree 87-154 of 27/02/1987, with a regional scope, including representatives of the governmental departments concerned, but also of the services of the Water Agency and of the National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environments (ONEMA), and involving, when appropriate, representatives of local authorities, users, associations for environmental protection and qualified individuals. The meetings of the technical water committee (CTE) should allow an exchange of
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Territorial sea

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Sovereign base area of ​​a coastal tate of 12 miles width (at most) from its baselines.

Source
d'après Organisation Hydrographique Internationale

Territorial waters

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Adjacent sea belt on which a coastal State exercises its sovereignty beyond its territory and inland waters (maximum width: 12 nautical miles or 22.2 km from the baseline).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Test dataset

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Homogeneous set of data based on specifications. A test dataset provided by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) is a set of data on professions/jobs produced by the Sandre as an example.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Thalweg

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Is defined by opposition to the ridge line (or "topographic divide" or "watershed"). The space between two thalwegs is called "interfluve". Bottom line of a valley. In a drained valley, the thalweg is the bed of the watercourse.
Source
According to Seine-Normandy Water Agency

Thermal drying of sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Process used during the drying step of sewage sludge. Thermal drying allows the almost complete elimination of water (about 95% dryness) by energy input.
Source
according to ADEME and the Seine-Normandy Water Agency

Thermal stratification

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Existence of layers of water at different temperatures, which do not mix, in a voluminous body of water (such as a lake)
Source
according to IFREMER

Thermalism

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All social, hospital, medical facilities, etc. implemented for the therapeutic use of spring water.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Thermocline

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Transition zone between two bodies of water with different temperatures and mixing with difficulty.
Source
According to Ifremer

Threshold value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Limit value beyond which a physical, chemical or biological phenomenon can cause a given effect.
Source
According to BRGM

Tidal coefficient

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio, in a given place, of the mean tidal range in spring tides. This number, expressed in hundredths, is applied to the tides on French coasts. It allows an approximate prediction of High and Low Tides. Tides whose coefficient is greater than 85 are called "spring tides" and those whose value is less than 55 are "neap tides". The concept of
Source
According to Ifremer

Tidal current

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Current caused by the movement of water volumes during the tidal cycle.
Source
According to Ifremer

Tidal marsh

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Flat and wet coastal area, poorly drained and often flooded at high water. It is found in river mouths, deep bays and behind barrier beaches.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Tidal movement

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Circulation of sea water masses, including vertical displacements due to the tide and horizontal displacements due to tidal currents.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Tidal power

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Tidal energy that can be captured by using the tidal currents to turn wheels or turbines. Example from the Middle Ages include existing tidal mills, but also the Rance tidal power plant in Ille-et-Vilaine.
Source
According to Ifremer

Tidal range

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Change in water level as a function of periods of high or low-flow in a body of water, or of the level of high tide and low sea water level. It is measured in metres between two dates.

Source
According to AFB

Tidal reach

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Name of Celtic origin denoting a kind of river mouth intermediary between the ria (which suffered from no backfill) and the estuary whose geometry was altered by the filling of the banks.
Source
According to Ifremer

Tide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Multi-periodic change of the sea level, the main part of which is the astronomical tide. Wave phenomenon caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon, which affects the surface of the oceans and seas.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Tide mark

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Refers to the extreme limit reached by the sea in a given day. The lowest tide mark is the limit of continuously submerged lands. It is distant more than 100 metres from the high-flow mark (otherwise it is not entered) and outside estuaries (where an arbitrary line closing the estuary is entered instead of the lowest

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Tolerable daily intake (TDI)

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Estimate of the amount of a substance found in food or drinking water, expressed as a function of body weight (mg/kg or mg/kg body weight), that can be daily ingested over a lifetime without appreciable health risk.
Source
According to Ademe

Topsoil removal

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An ecological soil restoration technique consisting in removing a surface layer to reduce its organic content and thus enable the installation of pioneer species, plant or animal. Topsoil removal is a technique that is especially applied to nutrient-poor environments, such as natural lawns and heaths. Topsoil removal is distinguished from soil stripping, which is practiced more deeply and for the purpose of pollution removal.
Source
according to CELF

Torrent

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Generic name of a mountain stream, or located in a hilly area, fast-flowing, or violent to very violent, functioning irregularly depending on rainfall (especially during thunderstorms).
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Torrential hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of hydraulics relating to flows in areas with steep slopes.
Source
according to Water torrents & mountain rivers

Total water consumption

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Total volume of water that has been abstracted and may not be used for a variety of reasons: evaporation, transpiration and integration into products consumed by humans or livestock, direct discharge into the sea or other withdrawals from freshwater resources. Water losses, due to leak during transport between the

Source
According to Eurostat

Total water cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Total cost of water, including environmental cost, the cost of the resource and the cost of service.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Towpath

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Path located along the bank of a navigable waterway to allow teams to cable-tow a boat travelling in the open channel.
Source
According to Ifremer

Toxic pollution

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution by toxic substances which may, depending on their content, seriously and/or on a long-term basis, affect living organisms. These substances can lead to a deferred or immediate death, to reproductive disorders, or significant disruption of biological functions (e.g. reproductive disorders). The main toxic substances encountered in the environment during chronic or acute pollution are generally heavy metals
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Toxic substances

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Substances that could cause serious problems in a living organism and possibly cause death (see toxic pollution).
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Toxicity

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Result of an action, more or less harmful to a living organism, which chemicals can exert when coming into contact with the latter. We talk about toxic substance when, after entering the organism, by any means whatsoever (at an appropriate dose given once or several times at very short intervals, or repeated small doses over a long time), it causes, immediately or after a more or less long latency period, transient or permanent disorders of one or more functions of the organism up to their complete removal and death of the organism (called lethal toxicity). Acute toxicity (causing death or serious physiological disorders immediately or shortly after exposure) should be distinguished from subacute (at lower doses, effects which occur in the short term on target organisms and which are sometimes reversible) or from chronic toxicity (causing long-term irreversible effects by continuous absorption of small doses of pollutants, or cumulative effects).
Source
According to BRGM

Toxicity reference value (TRV)

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Generic name regrouping all types of toxicological indexes that establish a relationship between dose and effect (toxic with threshold effect or threshold dose) or between a dose and the probability of any effect (toxic without threshold effect). The VTRs are established by international organizations (World Health Organization, for example) or national institutions (High Council for Public Health in France, etc).
Source
According to BRGM

Toxicology

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that focuses on the identification and study of substances that can harm living organisms.
Source
According to BRGM

Trace element

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Refers to elements that can be found in very small quantities.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Traceability

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Ability to tracking, through all stages of production, transformation and distribution, a foodstuff, an animal feed, a food-producing animal or a substance intended to be, or expected to be, incorporated into a foodstuff or a food. Traceability is important for food intended for human or animal consumption.
Source
According to CEDRE

Transaction cost

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Cost of an economic exchange, specifically a market transaction. It can be direct (exchange commission) or indirect (cost of exploration, time passed and efforts made to negotiate and check the transaction, etc).
Source
According to Ronald Coase (economist)

Transfer time

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Time required by a molecule or a volume of water, to go through a system (a watershed, an aquifer, a hydrographic network, a soil...).

Source
According to INRA

Transformation scenario

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Set of technical indications that can convert a computer format into another specific format. A transformation scenario, established by the French National Service for Water Data and Common Reference Frames Management (SANDRE), is a specification document that describes how to convert data in a specific context. This document details: the semantics, the obligatory and optional nature, the syntax, the data and the technical and organisational rules of the transformation. A transformation scenario is based on an exchange scenario and is converted into XLT and PDF format files
Source
according to SANDRE

Transitional waters

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Surface waters located in the vicinity of river mouths, which are partly saline because of their proximity to littoral waters but which are substantially influenced by freshwater inflows.

Source
According to AFB

Transparency

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
For a dam, it is an operation to limit sediment accumulation in the reservoir by restoring sediment transport in the river during floods. Operations of this type are generally planned in water regulations or in operating rules approved by the prefect. If this is not the case, they can be introduced into water regulations or operating rules by prefectural
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Travel-cost method

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for estimating the maximum entry right that visitors of a site would be willing to pay to continue visiting this site. It is based on the idea that travel expenses incurred by individuals to visit a site represent their willingness to pay to visit this site. The travel cost is a measure of the visit unit.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Treatment line

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organised series of processes for the treatment of water intended for human consumption.
Source
according to AFB

Tributary

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A tributary is a stream that flows into a larger river in a place called confluence.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Trickling filter

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Aerobic biological wastewater treatment reactor in which the bacterial purifying biomass is placed on an inert support, forming a biofilm (fixed bed). Wastewater is uniformly distributed on the surface and flow downwards with the gravity, through the pores of the filter. Thus, bacteria can degrade the carbon pollution and a part of the nitrogen one. The natural air ventilation carries to the bacteria, all the oxygen they need to eliminate the pollution.

Source
According to Seine-et-Marne Departemental Council

Tsunami

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Violent swell of the sea caused by sudden underwater tectonic disturbances: earthquake, underwater collapse, etc. The waves thus generated propagate at high speed (several hundred km/h) with wavelengths of several kilometres and can have amplitudes of several tens of metres, causing major damage to the coastline they strike.
Source
According to Ifremer

Tunicate

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Marine invertebrate animal which surrounds itself with a cellulosic protective tunic at adulthood.
Source
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Turbidity

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Nature of turbid water, whose lack of transparency is due to the presence of suspended particles.
Source
According to AFB

Typology

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Determination of the characteristics in a set of data to distinguish types, systems, etc.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency