Glossaire de A à Z
Geographical boundary for the scope of a sub-basin management plan (SAGE). This scope is a sub-basin, a group of sub-basins corresponding to a consistent hydrographic unit or aquifer system. If the boundary is defined by the river
In the strict sense, it is taking a sample (sampling) for analysis or testing. More generally, water withdrawals include all abstractions related to activities generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), drinking water supply, or others (authorized spring of mineral water, production of artificial snow). In this case, the withdrawals are grouped into 3 subtypes corresponding to the affected environment: surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstractions, seawater withdrawals.
Bias induced during an investigation, when the sample is not representative of the people who are supposed to be beneficiaries (investigations limited to cities, for example).
Template of a file or of one datum for interchange between the various water stakeholders. The data dictionaries and interchange scenarios established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) are based on file formats including XML and Text (frame and simplified pattern).
Treatment of (urban) wastewater which treats carbon suspended solids more advanced than primary treatment, according to a process by a process usually involving a biological treatment with secondary settlement or any other process resulting in a BOD reduction of at least 70% and COD of at least 75%. This treatment is required for agglomerations of over 2000 population equivalents.
Portion of the Earth's crust on which has been deposited, or still is depositing, many layers of sediment, produced by the alteration of preexisting rocks. Over time, significant accumulation of sediments causes the depression of the deposition zone, and allows the addition of new layers, creating a sedimentary basin.
Self-monitoring system generally required by law, to check the operation or impact of installations (e.g. wastewater-treatment plants, industrial sites, etc.). Generally speaking, it addresses the assessment water quality at the output of installations classified for environnemental protection, and the control of wastewater-treatment plants and sanitation networks.
According to the urban wastewater treatment Directive 91/271/EC, it means a river basin, whose water bodies, significant on the basin scale, are particularly sensitive to pollution. They especially include those which are subject to eutrophication and in which discharges of phosphorus, nitrogen, or both substances, must be reduced. Maps of sensitive zones were issued by the Minister responsible for the environment and…
A system separating the collecting of domestic sewage in a sewer system and stormwater in another. The separate sewer system has the advantage of avoiding the risk of sewage overflowing into the environment when it rains. It allows better control of the pollution
Collecting of separated domestic sewage in a system and stormwater in another. Separated collection has the advantage of avoiding the risk of sewage overflow into the environment when it rains. It allows better control of the pollution flow and concentration and better adapting the capacity of the wastewater treatment plants.
Service that covers, for households, or any other economic activity: the abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and supply of surface water and groundwater, as well as the collecting and wastewater treatment facilities that subsequently discharge into surface waters.
All plans and texts that describe, on the basis of sanitation zoning (collective sewerage areas, on-site sanitation areas, storm drainage areas), the physical organization of sanitation facilities in a community (sewage systems and treatment plants).
Areas classified into four groups (A to D) depending on the extent of microbiological contamination and pollution, resulting from the presence of toxic or harmful compounds of natural origin or released into the environment, that could have a negative effect on human health or on the taste of the shellfish. The safety classification of the areas defined by precise geographical boundaries is set out by
Lateral movements of the minor riverbed within the boundaries of the floodplain or delta of the watercourse and which create the free space of the watercourse.
Seaside (not to be misunderstood with "river bank", edge of a river).
On the basis of proposals from Member States, sites of community importance are selected by the European Commission to integrate the Natura 2000 network, under the habitats, fauna and flora directive. The list of names of those sites is adopted by the European Commission for each biogeographical region. These sites are then designated special areas of conservation by ministerial decree.
Mixture of water and solid matters, separated by physical or biological processes, resulting from wastewater treatment.
All processes intended to render sewage sludge in compliance with environmental standards, land use regulations or other applicable quality standards for recycling or reuse. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment is usually distinguished. These treatments not only reduce the volume of residues, but also stabilize and transform them into environmentally acceptable components and useful by-products. Tertiary treatment includes, for example, chemical conditioning, disinfection, pressure filtration, vacuum filtration, centrifugation and incineration. It is possible to classify wastewater treatment and sludge treatment in different categories, namely secondary treatment for wastewater and tertiary treatment for sewage sludge.
Set of computer programmes which allows data processing. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) exceptionally or experimentally develops software applying its specifications such as EDILABO Excel sheet or allowing its information management and dissemination.
A type of drought characterized by a water deficit in the surface soils (between 1 and 2 m deep), sufficient to alter the good development of vegetation.
A place for the reproduction of fish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans (they lay their eggs there). Gravel bars, oxbows, alluvial forests, floodplains, tree roots are the spawning. Each species, according to its reproductive strategy, is breeding in a particular habitat.
Marine and terrestrial sites that include natural habitats or species of wild fauna and flora considered to be of Community interest, and whose rarity, vulnerability or specificity justify the implementation of conservation measures, in accordance with the European Habitats Directive.
According to European Directive 92/43/EEC,'a site of Community importance designated by the Member States by a regulatory, administrative and/or contractual act in which the conservation measures necessary to maintain or restore, in a favourable conservation status, the natural habitats and/or populations of the species for which the site is designated are applied'.
Area recognized by the European Communities, by the directive of 25 April 1979, as useful for the protection of birds. This directive is replaced by the directive 2009/147/CE (more generally called "Birds" directive). Many special protection areas (SPAs) are encompassed in important bird areas (IBAs) and have the same boundaries as the old maritime hunting reserves. These areas are part of the Natura 2000 network.
Endangered or vulnerable or rare or endemic species (i.e. living on a well-defined territory) listed either in Annex II of fauna and flora habitats directive, then special areas of conservation have to be designated, or in Annexes IV or V of the fauna and flora habitats directive, and for which protective measures must be implemented on the whole territory.
System designed to remove pollution at source. It comprises a kind of wraparound intake roughly connected to a polluted air exhaust system (blowing - suction).
Written document giving specific details about something. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces a set of specifications including data dictionaries, exchange scenarios and technical scenarios.
The act of spreading a solid or liquid matter onto a surface (manure, soil improvement, fertilizers, pesticides, sludge, etc).
An operation that consists in spreading sludge (wastewater sludge, cleaning sludge, etc) onto the surface of the soil, to start its biological degradation by micro-organisms found in the soil and/or its use by flora or crops present on this land. Regulations set out the rules for the application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The spreading of sludge is subject to authorization or declaration.
Index for assessing the biological quality of the water of a river through an analysis of macro invertebrates. The value of this index depends on both the quality of the physical environment (bottom structure, habitat diversity, river bank status, etc) and water quality.
Surface water in which there is little or no flow. For example, lakes or ponds are standing water.
A system fitted to a combined sewer system or a partially separate system or a wastewater treatment plant that eliminates excess flow from the system.
Runoff driving matters accumulated on waterproofed surfaces of a farm (loafing sheds/pens, herd crossing areas, manure storage areas, etc), when no arrangement is made to collect these flows.
It refers to the method used for determining the rank of a watercourse, a method commonly chosen because it is simple to implement. In this method, two sections of the same order which join form a higher order section, while a segment that receives a lower order segment keeps the same order.
Data whose meaning has been functionally defined in detail as well as the rules for their creation (including possible values in some cases). Data dictionaries established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) include structured data.
Established for a sub-basin, a group of sub-basins, corresponding to a consistent river basin or aquifer system, the sub-basin management plan (SAGE) sets out the general objectives and provisions to meet the principle of sound and sustainable water resources management, aquatic environment conservancy and protection of fish heritage. It must be compatible with the river basin management plan (SDAGE) or made compatible within three years with the SDAGE updating. It is established by a local water commission (CLE) and is approved by the prefect. The SAGE includes a…
Directive 75/440/EEC of 16 June 1975 concerning the required quality of surface water intended for the production of drinking water in the Member States. It sets out the requirements that help to ensure that the surface freshwater used or intended to be used in food production meets certain standards and is adequately treated before being distributed. Groundwater, brackish waters or water intended for groundwater recharge are not concerned by this Directive. This directive was transcribed into French law by Decree of 12/19/1991, which also transcribed other directives (bathing water, fish life, shellfish waters, etc). This Directive was repealed on 22 December 2007 by article 22 of the Water Framework Directive. But some articles of the French Code of Public Health still refer to the untreated water…
Control aiming to assess, as part of the water status monitoring programme, the overall status of water and (long-term) evolution trends of the river basin, these changes being either natural or caused by human activities.
Fertilization method adapting the dosage of fertilizers to the real needs of crops. This method of fertilization integrates environmental objectives, particularly those relating to the preservation and restoration of the quality of water and soil. For example, for nitrates, this consists in carefully determining the quantity and the methods of spreading them on a plot in anticipation of crop needs, in order to limit the risks of water pollution by migration of surpluses.
Irrigation method that make of good use of irrigation water with calculated inputs to ensure optimal agricultural production. It aims to avoid wasting and draining substances that may be polluting due to excess water.
Spongy land, saturated with water, where marshes extend, and which is difficult to access because of a dense aquatic vegetation.