Glossaire de A à Z


Safe making

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to eliminate or reduce an immediate risk to an acceptable level (e.g. through removal or disposal of hazardous products and wastes from a site, by prohibiting or limiting access to the site, or by eliminating the risks of fire and explosion, etc).
Source
According to BRGM

SAGE boundary

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Geographical boundary for the scope of a sub-basin management plan (SAGE). This scope is a sub-basin, a group of sub-basins corresponding to a consistent hydrographic unit or aquifer system. If the boundary is defined by the river

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

SAGE Reference Unit

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Sub-basin or group of sub-basins whose boundaries can be determined by the river basin management plan (SDAGE). This is the reference unit for delimiting the boundaries of the

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Salmon/Trout farming

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Salmonid farming (mainly trout and salmon). Fragile and very demanding, salmonids prefer fresh, pure and oxygen-rich waters. Salmon-trout farming requires a lot of technicality and a permanent control to ensure the good health and the optimal comfort of the fish. The production sites (basins) are mostly located on the river upstream of the catchment area or in the headwaters. Salmon farming is a branch of fish farming, which is practiced in both fresh and salt water.
Source
according to the Association for the Development of Aquaculture and Professional Fishing

Salmonid

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Family of fish including salmon, trout and chars.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Salt marsh

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Coastal area used for producing sea salt by natural evaporation.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Salt water demarcation line

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Boundary between seawater and river water. The salt water demarcation line is, in estuaries, the boundary between the areas in which regulations are applied on sea fishing and on river fishing. The salt water demarcation line in rivers, streams and canals is determined by the
Source
According to Ifremer

Salt wedge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of a coastal aquifer invaded by salt water (usually sea water) between the bottom of the aquifer and a freshwater-saltwater interface, the salt water wedge being under fresh water. The appearance of a salt wedge, beyond a natural low…
Source
According to Ifremer

Saltwater intrusion

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Phenomenon in which a body of saltwater penetrates into a freshwater body whether surface water or groundwater bodies.
Source
According to Ifremer

Sample

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

In the strict sense, it is taking a sample (sampling) for analysis or testing. More generally, water withdrawals include all abstractions related to activities generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), drinking water supply, or others (authorized spring of mineral water, production of artificial snow). In this case, the withdrawals are grouped into 3 subtypes corresponding to the affected environment: surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstractions, seawater withdrawals.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Sample bias

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Bias induced during an investigation, when the sample is not representative of the people who are supposed to be beneficiaries (investigations limited to cities, for example).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Sampling

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A method used to choose a sample of something from others.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Sampling point

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Place of collection of water samples for analysis.
Source
according to AFB

Sanctuary

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Protected area where a threatened animal species (reserve) lives. It has recently been provided with a management plan.
Source
According to Ifremer

Sandre Format

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Template of a file or of one datum for interchange between the various water stakeholders. The data dictionaries and interchange scenarios established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) are based on file formats including XML and Text (frame and simplified pattern).

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Sanitary control of water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Control of all waters intended for use and having an impact on public health (drinking water, bathing, watering, etc), which checks their compliance with regulatory requirements in terms of consumption or human and animal…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Sanitation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All structures built by man to channel rainwater and wastewater within a city. Most of these structures are pipelines/sewers connected to each other underground. The sewer system is one of the elements constituting the sewerage system.
Source

Sanitation contract

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Multi-year contract signed by various stakeholders (a municipality, a wastewater treatment syndicate, a water agency, etc.) to specify the nature, cost and duration of the planned sanitation work to meet essential technical and financial development in the long term.
Source
according to the Mulhouse Multipurpose Syndicate

Sanitation programme

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the Decree of 3 June 1994 on urban waste water, it is a programme to be developed by each municipality whose territory is entirely or partly included in an agglomeration producing a gross load of organic pollution greater than 120 kilograms per day. This programme includes an assessment of the existing sewerage system and an indication of the objectives and means to develop to achieve the objectives of reducing the flow of pollutants and comply with the obligations set out in the aforementioned decree.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Sanitation regulations

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Guidance and arbitration tool prepared by the municipality, which defines the conditions for connecting users to the sewerage system and the existing -or to be established- relations between the operator of this utility and domestic and industrial users. For non-domestic connections, the limit values of flows and acceptable concentrations of compounds, the list of undesirable compounds, the appraisal process, etc, are determined.
Source
According to ADEME

Saturation limit

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value above which the laboratory is unable to accurately determine the quantity of the parameter looked for.
Source
According to AFB

Scales

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Horny or bony plates arranged in overlapping rows on the body of the fish, the free rear end of a scale covering the front end attached to the scale behind it. In a number of species, the scales are thickened and form true bony plates. For others, however, they are minor (eels). Fish of a given species keep the same number of scales all their life. Aging does not cause an increase in the number of scales, but the growth of the scales themselves. The scales cover the entire body of the fish (except fins). They are fully covered by a very thin and fragile skin.
Source
According to Ifremer

Scarification

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Mechanically loosening soil by trenching without turnover.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Schorre/Salt marsh

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Upper part of a coastal marsh, consisting of solid mud, covered with grass and submerged at high tides.
Source
according to the Robert dictionary
Sens technique
Coastal area corresponding to the upper part of the midlittoral zone and the lower part of the infralittoral zone. The schorre is generally a marsh and colonised by halophytic plants. It is covered only at high tides.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Scouring

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Deep hole dug in the bed by water. Natural or man-made attack action at the base of a natural slope, an escarpment, a cliff, a wall or a rockfill that carries away the least resistant materials on which it rests or which protect it.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Sea

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All salt waters covering the submerged part of the Earth. Is opposite to earth. The enclosed inland bodies of water, even salted (Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Aral Sea), despite their name, are not considered as belonging to the sea.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Sea development plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Guidance document for part of the territory which is a geographical and marine unit. It has related, competing or complementary interests as regards coastal protection, exploitation and development. Sea development plans (SMVM), established by the Coastal Law 86/2 of 3 January 1986, must be approved by decree of the Council of State.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Sea inlet

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Refers to a long and narrow body of sea water enclosed between lands.
Source
According to Ifremer

Seasonal pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution occurring seasonally, mainly as a result of specific human activities (road salting in winter, soil improvement, tourism...).
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of Rhône-Alpes

Seawater

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water from oceans and seas, characterised by having higher salinity and density than freshwater.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Secondary treatment

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Treatment of (urban) wastewater which treats carbon suspended solids more advanced than primary treatment, according to a process by a process usually involving a biological treatment with secondary settlement or any other process resulting in a BOD reduction of at least 70% and COD of at least 75%. This treatment is required for agglomerations of over 2000 population equivalents.

 

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment and Wikipedia and European Commission

Sediment

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Continental or marine deposit, which comes from alteration or disintegration of rocks and is transported by rivers, glaciers or winds. Sediments are differentiated by their mineralogical nature and size.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017 and IOWater

Sediment discharge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mass of solids passing through a given cross section of a watercourse per time unit. The sediment discharge includes dissolved matters, suspended solids and riverbed materials. These materials are moved in the riverbed according to different transport laws: thrust, suspension, saltation. Sediment discharge and liquid flow are the two main variables of river dynamics.
Source
According to AFB

Sediment transport

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sediment transport (particles, clay, silt, sand, gravel, etc) in rivers can be done either by suspension in water, or by moving on the bed bottom due to the tractive forces linked to the current.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Sedimentory basin

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Portion of the Earth's crust on which has been deposited, or still is depositing, many layers of sediment, produced by the alteration of preexisting rocks. Over time, significant accumulation of sediments causes the depression of the deposition zone, and allows the addition of new layers, creating a sedimentary basin.

Source
according to CNRS

Self-contained sanitation system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Private individual system to evacuate domestic or other waste waters where there is no collecting system of municipal waste water or where the latter is not justified either because it does not affect the environment, or because the cost would be excessive.

Source
According to Eurostat

Self-maintaining service

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Service necessary for producing all the other services (regulation, supply, cultural services), their disturbance only affecting man indirectly or in the long term.
Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Self-monitoring system

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Self-monitoring system generally required by law, to check the operation or impact of installations (e.g. wastewater-treatment plants, industrial sites, etc.). Generally speaking, it addresses the assessment water quality at the output of installations classified for environnemental protection, and the control of wastewater-treatment plants and sanitation networks.

Source
according to AFB

Self-purification

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
All biological, chemical or physical processes enabling an ecosystem (river, water body, sea and ocean, etc.) to transform the substances, most often organic, that it produces or which are brought up from the outside. Organisms living in aquatic…
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Self-selection bias

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Bias induced during an investigation when individuals, who feel involved or whose visit at a site is higher, have a higher probability of being interviewed (particularly with regard to investigations conducted face-to-face on recreational sites).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Semantic

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
What is related to the sense (of a word, a text) or to a purpose (an action, an organization).
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Sensitive zone

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

According to the urban wastewater treatment Directive 91/271/EC, it means a river basin, whose water bodies, significant on the basin scale, are particularly sensitive to pollution. They especially include those which are subject to eutrophication and in which discharges of phosphorus, nitrogen, or both substances, must be reduced. Maps of sensitive zones were issued by the Minister responsible for the environment and…

Source
According to AFB

Sensitivity analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for assessing the robustness of the outcome of an economic analysis depending on variations in some parameters or assumptions.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Separate sewer system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A system separating the collecting of domestic sewage in a sewer system and stormwater in another. The separate sewer system has the advantage of avoiding the risk of sewage overflowing into the environment when it rains. It allows better control of the pollution

Source
According to IOWater

Separate system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A sanitation system formed by two separate systems, one for wastewater and one for stormwater. This is a common system since the 1970s, only the wastewater system is connected to the treatment plant, the stormwater system usually discharging its waters into a watercourse.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Separated collecting

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Collecting of separated domestic sewage in a system and stormwater in another. Separated collection has the advantage of avoiding the risk of sewage overflow into the environment when it rains. It allows better control of the pollution flow and concentration and better adapting the capacity of the wastewater treatment plants.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Septic tank

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Structure for on-site sanitation of individual dwellings. The watertight septic tank receives wastewater (kitchen, bathroom) and black water (toilet). It ensures, by anaerobic fermentation (with no oxygen), an early treatment that will continue into the soil by the disposal bed that consists of a network of drains.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Service associated with water use

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Service that covers, for households, or any other economic activity: the abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and supply of surface water and groundwater, as well as the collecting and wastewater treatment facilities that subsequently discharge into surface waters.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Sewage farm

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
An area receiving, through a network of buried pipes, the clarified waters coming out of an all-water pit and having enabling conditions for the purification and drainage of the treated wastewater towards the deeper layers of the subsoil.
Source
according to Alpes Géo Conseil

Sewer

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Waterproof underground pipe that collects wastewater from an urban area and evacuates it to a treatment plant before its discharge into the natural environment. The term "direct to sewer" is false: not everything can be discharged into the sewers (solvents, white spirit, etc) at the risk of disrupting the orderly operation of the wastewater treatment plant.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Sewerage scheme

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All plans and texts that describe, on the basis of sanitation zoning (collective sewerage areas, on-site sanitation areas, storm drainage areas), the physical organization of sanitation facilities in a community (sewage systems and treatment plants).

Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Shadow price value

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Amounts that the Ministry for the Environment recommends to routinely use to quantify the value of non-market environmental services provided by aquatic environments, as profits from the preservation or restoration of aquatic environments or as damage related to their degradation.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

shellfish

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Usually refers to a mollusc, generally from the sea, bearing a shell (shell-forming). At the regulatory level (health regulations), the term "shellfish" refers to the following marine animals: bivalve molluscs (filter feeder), gastropod molluscs, sea urchins (echinoderms) and sea squirts (tunicates).
Source
According to Ifremer

Shellfish farming

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Traditional shellfish farming, mainly oysters (oyster farming) and mussels (mussel breeding).
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Shellfish growing area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Production or fishing area for live shellfish, regrouping all places of capture, breeding and professional fishing by hand. Recreational activities are not affected by this administrative division.
Source
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Shellfish production area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Area where professional practices of fishing and/or farming juvenile or adult shellfish are taking place with the ultimate goal to sale and market them for human consumption.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Shellfish production areas

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Areas classified into four groups (A to D) depending on the extent of microbiological contamination and pollution, resulting from the presence of toxic or harmful compounds of natural origin or released into the environment, that could have a negative effect on human health or on the taste of the shellfish. The safety classification of the areas defined by precise geographical boundaries is set out by

Source
According to the Environmental Code

Shellfish Waters Directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Directive 79/923/EEC of the Council of 30 October 1979 concerning the quality required of shellfish waters. It concerns the quality of shellfish waters and applies to those coastal and brackish waters designated by the Member States as needing protection or improvement in order to support shellfish life and growth (bivalve and gastropod molluscs) and thus to contribute to the high quality of shellfish products directly edible to human beings. Member States shall determine the values of parameters applicable to shellfish waters and which are listed in the Annex to this Directive. This directive was transcribed into French law by Decree of 12/19/1991, which also transcribed other directives (bathing waters, fish life, etc). Directive 2006/113/EC of 12 December 2006 concerning the quality required of…
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment, Ineris and AFB, Ineris

Shifting of the bed

Updated on 05/03/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Lateral movements of the minor riverbed within the boundaries of the floodplain or delta of the watercourse and which create the free space of the watercourse.

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'environnement et AFB

Shore

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Seaside (not to be misunderstood with "river bank", edge of a river).

Source
According to Ifremer

Shoreline

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
For some people, it is a belt between land areas and constantly submerged areas. For others, the littoral is limited to the coastline, to the foreshore, or otherwise extends to all lands which are influenced by the presence of the sea. From a…
Source
According to Ifremer

Short-term exposure limit value

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Concentration expressed in cm3/m3 (ppm) and in mg/m3 to protect workers against acute effects or effects of a momentary exposure that is estimated to be adverse in the long term (exposure lasting 15 minutes at most). These values are used in France for the protection of workers' health and safety against the risks related to exposure to chemical agents at the work place.
Source
According to BRGM

Sill

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure located in the minor bed of a watercourse to fill an excessive bed depression caused by the extraction of materials or by a structure for example. It can be a low structure normally submerged, built for various purposes, possibly to stabilize the water level/flow rate ratio in a stream at a station, or the top of a dike or of any other structure, or of a natural levee, on which water can flow when it reaches a sufficient level.
Source
According to Marcel Roche (hydrologist)

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

Silting up

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Piles of earth, sand, gravel, pebbles brought by water and created by a decrease in flow velocity. This phenomenon is generated by the plant growth cycle that brings every year a litter layer (up to several tons per year). Much of this litter is very slowly changed into mineral salts by bacteria and microscopic fungi. Sediment inputs and vegetable deposits from outside add to the filling of the marsh thus acting as a biogeochemical buffer for the drainage basins.
Source
According to Forum of Atlantic Marshes

Single joint management body

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Joint organisation for the quantitative management of the water resource withdrawn for agricultural use. The single joint management body (OUGC) exercises its prerogatives on an area determined according to a hydrological (or hydrogeological) logic and not according to administrative limits. OUGCs may be groups of irrigators, owners of irrigated or irrigable land, a chamber of agriculture, a local authority or a private legal body.
Source
according to FNE

Sinuosity

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Ratio between the developed river length in a valley and the length of the valley itself.
Source
According to Cemagref

SIREN code of an organization

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Identifier assigned by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) at the creation of a company (or in the declaration of existence of self-employed workers, artists and authors). The SIREN code consists of 9 digits.
Source
According to BRGM

SIRET code of an organization

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Geographic identifier given when establishing a company; made up of 14 digits (corresponding to 9-digits of the SIREN code followed by 5-digits of NIC). So there may be several SIRETs (Identification System of the Directory of Institutions) for a single SIREN code if the company has several branches.
Source
According to BRGM

SISE-Bathing waters

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Information system of the Ministry for Health and of its regional and departmental services to organize the storage of sanitary information on the quality of bathing waters (sea, bodies of water and rivers).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

SISE-Water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Information system of the Ministry for Health and of its regional and departmental services to organize the storage of sanitary information on waters.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Site of community importance (SCI)

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

On the basis of proposals from Member States, sites of community importance are selected by the European Commission to integrate the Natura 2000 network, under the habitats, fauna and flora directive. The list of names of those sites is adopted by the European Commission for each biogeographical region. These sites are then designated special areas of conservation by ministerial decree.

Source
According to MNHN

Slikken/Tidal flat

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of the coastal ecosystems located in the intertidal zone and consists of mudflats uncovered at low tide.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017 and IOWater

Sludge

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Mixture of water and solid matters, separated by physical or biological processes, resulting from wastewater treatment.

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency and Ademe

sludge composting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Aerobic biological stabilisation process (without the presence of oxygen) of sewage sludge.
Source
according to ADEME

Sludge conditioning

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Change of the characteristics of sewage sludge by physical or chemical processes to facilitate the separation of solids and liquids.
Source
according to Recyconsult

Sludge dewatering

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Process used for treating sewage sludge, changing it from a liquid state to a more or less solid state. Sludge dewatering reduces its volume.
Source
according to Recyconsult

Sludge filtration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Process for the mechanical dewatering of extracted sewage sludge at the clarifier outlet. Sludge filtration can be done by filter press or filter bag.
Source
according to the General Council of Seine-et-Marne

Sludge incineration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Heat treatment of sewage sludge used as an energy source. Incineration is preferred when sludge composting or land application cannot be considered.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and SIAAP

Sludge recovery

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Enhancement of the useful agronomic properties of sludge, especially in agricultural activities (application of dewatered sludge on arable land in particular). However, sludge recovery must not affect soil quality and agricultural production.
Source
according to ADEME and the Ministry of the Environment

Sludge recycling

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Reuse of sewage sludge, especially in agriculture (composting, land application) or in industry (cement, for example).
Source
according to the eco-enterprise development centre

Sludge settling

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Separation of active sludge and treated water obtained by sedimentation in a clarifier or secondary clarifier. Good settleability of the sludge is essential for the process to be efficient and reliable.
Source
according to FNDAE

Sludge stabilisation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Step in the treatment of sewage sludge to reduce its fermentation capacity, so as to reduce or eliminate bad odours.
Source
according to ADEME

Sludge storage

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Storage of sludge at sewage treatment plants before its land application.
Source
according to the Loire-Brittany Water Agency

Sludge thickening

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Increasing the dry matter content of the sludge without modifying the liquid nature of the sludge. The thickening of sludge can be done merely by gravity in a concentrator or by mechanical means (dripping, flotation or centrifugation).
Source
according to ADEME

Sludge treatment

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All processes intended to render sewage sludge in compliance with environmental standards, land use regulations or other applicable quality standards for recycling or reuse. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment is usually distinguished. These treatments not only reduce the volume of residues, but also stabilize and transform them into environmentally acceptable components and useful by-products. Tertiary treatment includes, for example, chemical conditioning, disinfection, pressure filtration, vacuum filtration, centrifugation and incineration. It is possible to classify wastewater treatment and sludge treatment in different categories, namely secondary treatment for wastewater and tertiary treatment for sewage sludge.

Source
d'après Eurostat

slurry/liquid manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mixture of farm animal excreta containing a large quantity of water, kept in covered pits to then serve as fertiliser.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Small island

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Silted up area where the vegetation has exceeded the pioneer stage. Species that develop there secure the silted up area so that flooding cannot move it away. The islands and islets are refuges for plants and animals.
Source
According to AFB

Small/micro hydropower plant

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Hydropower facility converting hydropower into electrical energy whose power varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW (concession limit stated by decree of the Council of State). The term "micro" used in everyday language does not account for the importance of the production unit (turbinated volume, operating height).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Snow melt

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Transformation of snow into liquid water.
Source
according to UNESCO

Snowmaking

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Technique used for producing snow by projecting, into a negative temperature air, tiny droplets of water that will freeze before falling back to the ground.
Source
according to METEO FRANCE and IOWater

Socioeconomics of the environment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discipline studying environmental management taking into account phenomena and economic and sociological facts.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Socioeconomics of water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discipline studying water management from the combined economic and sociological points of view. The socioeconomics of water contributes to identify priority issues concerning water and aquatic environments as well as their prioritisation with regard to the development of the local economy and the environmental realities of the area concerned.
Source
according to the Loire-Brittany Water Agency

Software

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Set of computer programmes which allows data processing. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) exceptionally or experimentally develops software applying its specifications such as EDILABO Excel sheet or allowing its information management and dissemination.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Soil decontamination

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to extract or destroy all or part of the pollutants present in a soil.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Soil drought

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A type of drought characterized by a water deficit in the surface soils (between 1 and 2 m deep), sufficient to alter the good development of vegetation.

Source
according to Météo France

Soil erosion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Thinning of the topsoil of a field as a result of the natural erosive forces of water and wind, or as a result of agricultural activities such as tillage. Soil erosion lowers the productivity of the land and contributes to the pollution of adjacent rivers, wetlands and lakes.
Source
according to Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

Soil moisture index

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
  Assessing the amount of water available in a soil, as compared to its optimal reserve (useful reserve). When the soil moisture index (SWI) is close to 1, the soil is wet (greater than 1, the SWI indicates that the soil tends to saturation). Conversely, when it tends to 0, the soil is under water stress (less than 0, it indicates that the soil is very dry).
Source
according to AFB

Spawning

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

A place for the reproduction of fish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans (they lay their eggs there). Gravel bars, oxbows, alluvial forests, floodplains, tree roots are the spawning. Each species, according to its reproductive strategy, is breeding in a particular habitat.

Source
According to AFB

Spawning biomass

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Weight of sexually mature animals actually participating in breeding. It is expressed as the total weight of females and sometimes by the weight of sexual matter (gonad, sex products, etc).
Source
According to Ifremer

Spawning run

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action of migratory fish going up a river to reach its spawning or growth area.
Source
According to Rhone-Alps Regional Council

Special area of conservation

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Marine and terrestrial sites that include natural habitats or species of wild fauna and flora considered to be of Community interest, and whose rarity, vulnerability or specificity justify the implementation of conservation measures, in accordance with the European Habitats Directive.

Source
according to European Commission and IOWater
Sens réglementaire

According to European Directive 92/43/EEC,'a site of Community importance designated by the Member States by a regulatory, administrative and/or contractual act in which the conservation measures necessary to maintain or restore, in a favourable conservation status, the natural habitats and/or populations of the species for which the site is designated are applied'.

Source
According to European Commission

Special protection area (SPA)

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Area recognized by the European Communities, by the directive of 25 April 1979, as useful for the protection of birds. This directive is replaced by the directive 2009/147/CE (more generally called "Birds" directive). Many special protection areas (SPAs) are encompassed in important bird areas (IBAs) and have the same boundaries as the old maritime hunting reserves. These areas are part of the Natura 2000 network.

Source
According to Ifremer

Species

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All individuals which share similar morphological and physiological hereditary characteristics and are able to breed individuals among themselves. Species that look alike but unable to breed among themselves belong to the same genus.
Source
According to Ifremer

Species classification

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science aiming to create and advance the classification of living beings. The classification of species is a logical system that establishes a particular kinship with other species that are close or far away owing to the various species characteristics of their own. The system in force since Linnaeus (1758) is a system of binomial nomenclature (generic name + specific name), written in Latin.
Source
According to Ifremer

Species of community interest

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Endangered or vulnerable or rare or endemic species (i.e. living on a well-defined territory) listed either in Annex II of fauna and flora habitats directive, then special areas of conservation have to be designated, or in Annexes IV or V of the fauna and flora habitats directive, and for which protective measures must be implemented on the whole territory.

Source
According to MNHN

Species richness

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Number of different species identified in one sample, describing the biodiversity of an area.

Source
according to Ifremer and AFB

Specific abstraction

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

System designed to remove pollution at source. It comprises a kind of wraparound intake roughly connected to a polluted air exhaust system (blowing - suction).

Source
According to Ademe

Specific flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Flow per surface unit of the drainage basin usually expressed in litres/seconde/km2. It allows making comparison between watercourses in different river basins.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Specific power of a river

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Power calculated as the product of the slope and flow rate that characterizes the dynamic potential of the river. The adjustment capacity of the river is largely a function of the specific power.
Source
According to Seine-Normandy Water Agency

Specific Response Plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Document that defines the measures to take for dealing with a major crisis (accidental pollution or catastrophic event), and which aims at planning rescue, organizing the flow of information between the services concerned, informing the public with the necessary instructions, delimiting possible evacuation areas, etc. The
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Specifications document

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Written document giving specific details about something. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces a set of specifications including data dictionaries, exchange scenarios and technical scenarios.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Sport fishing

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Fishing whose product is intended for exclusive consumption by the fisherman and his family and cannot be peddled, exhibited or sold. Sport fishing regroups boat fishing (fishing from a boat, also called recreational or pleasure fishing, - which also includes big-game fishing also called offshore sport fishing), hand fishing, shore fishing, and finally underwater fishing. It is practiced either from ships or boats other than those having a permit and a crew for fishing, or by swimming or diving, or walking on the public maritime domain and on the part of rivers or channels where the water is salty. [...] For sport fishing, the use of any breathing equipment, whether self-contained or not, which allows a person to breath underwater without returning to the surface, is prohibited. [...] Sport fishing can be prohibited either for some protected species, or depending on the size of commercial species, on the fishing methods used, on fishing areas and seasons, on fishing bans and stoppages
Source
According to Bruno Drouot (economist)

Spreadable sludge

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sludge with features allowing it to be spread or applied on agricultural land as far as it is relevant for feeding crops and where it meets quality and precise rules.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Spreading

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

The act of spreading a solid or liquid matter onto a surface (manure, soil improvement, fertilizers, pesticides, sludge, etc).

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Spreading equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Agricultural equipment used to spread various products on an agricultural surface.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Spreading of sludge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

An operation that consists in spreading sludge (wastewater sludge, cleaning sludge, etc) onto the surface of the soil, to start its biological degradation by micro-organisms found in the soil and/or its use by flora or crops present on this land. Regulations set out the rules for the application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The spreading of sludge is subject to authorization or declaration.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB, Ademe

Spring

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water that comes naturally out of the ground, or by metonymy the point where this water rushes out. The spring is often the headwaters of a watercourse, but springs can feed ponds or lakes or flow directly into the sea, or produce water that disappears again into the ground.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Spring tide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
High tide occurring at the times of full moon and new moon.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Spring water

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
According to the Decree 89-369 of 6 June 1989, microbiologically safe water coming from the ground and protected against the risk of pollution, fit for human consumption without further treatment or any other addition than a separation of its unstable elements and sedimentation of suspended solids by settling or filtration, and (or) an addition of carbon dioxide. It must be authorized by the prefecture.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Spur

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure built in a stream at a certain angle to shape the bed.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

staff gauge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Graduated scale on which the water level in a reservoir, a stream,... may be directly read.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

standard

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Rule defined and adopted by an organization, that is officially in charge of this task, for defining criteria (definitions and thresholds/limits) to be met by the manufactured products. In France, the organization which performs this function is the French Association for Standardization (AFNOR). It publishes N.F. standards (French standard). At the international level, a similar role is provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Source
According to Ifremer

Standardization

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Activity for data specification or standardization even. It relies on data dictionaries. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) carries out standardization work to develop specification documents.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Standardized Global Biological Index

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Index for assessing the biological quality of the water of a river through an analysis of macro invertebrates. The value of this index depends on both the quality of the physical environment (bottom structure, habitat diversity, river bank status, etc) and water quality.

Source
According to AFB

Standing water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Surface water in which there is little or no flow. For example, lakes or ponds are standing water.

Source
according to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

State-owned watercourse

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A watercourse being part, with the State-owned lakes, of the Public Waterways Domain (DPF). We distinguish: (i) the State-owned watercourses listed on the nomenclature of waterways (the Minister for Transport is responsible for their management: the State shall take care of the maintenance of these waterways and navigation structures for allowing navigation; (ii) the State-owned watercourses…
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Storm drain

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A system fitted to a combined sewer system or a partially separate system or a wastewater treatment plant that eliminates excess flow from the system.

Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Stormwater drainage from waterproofed surfaces

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All the techniques and facilities for controlling stormwater flow and water runoff by retention or infiltration or for taking care of the collection, possible storage and, if necessary, the stormwater and runoff-water treatment when the pollution they bring to the aquatic environment may seriously impair the effectiveness of sanitation systems. Indeed, rainwater by running off on waterproofed surfaces (roofs, roads, storage areas, etc), may carry pollutants (organic matters, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, etc).
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Stormwater overflow

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Runoff driving matters accumulated on waterproofed surfaces of a farm (loafing sheds/pens, herd crossing areas, manure storage areas, etc), when no arrangement is made to collect these flows.

Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Strahler rank

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

It refers to the method used for determining the rank of a watercourse, a method commonly chosen because it is simple to implement. In this method, two sections of the same order which join form a higher order section, while a segment that receives a lower order segment keeps the same order.

Source
According to Cemagref

Strait

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Narrowing of an arm of the sea (sea inlet) between two land masses that only leaves a relatively narrow passage between them.
Source
According to Ifremer

Strategic bias

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Bias induced during an investigation, when respondents think they can influence the final decision, so they overstate their willingness to pay. Some people may also give a lower value in thinking that others will pay for them (stowaway phenomenon). In fact, these people have no interest to reveal their true preferences, if to hide them gives them a greater advantage.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Structured data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Data whose meaning has been functionally defined in detail as well as the rules for their creation (including possible values in some cases). Data dictionaries established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) include structured data.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Sub-basin management plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Established for a sub-basin, a group of sub-basins, corresponding to a consistent river basin or aquifer system, the sub-basin management plan (SAGE) sets out the general objectives and provisions to meet the principle of sound and sustainable water resources management, aquatic environment conservancy and protection of fish heritage. It must be compatible with the river basin management plan (SDAGE) or made compatible within three years with the SDAGE updating. It is established by a local water commission (CLE) and is approved by the prefect. The SAGE includes a…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Substance

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Matter characterized by its specific properties.
Source
According to Ifremer

Substitute-cost method

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for assessing the costs to be borne to address the lack of the studied environmental good by the use of artificial means. For example, a reduction in the self-cleaning functions of a wetland would lead to build additional wastewater treatment plants or resize existing plants.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

substrate

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Any material used to be a physical carrier for organisms.
Source

Sulphur cycle

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All exchanges and transformations of sulphur in the different components of the environment.
Source
According to Wikipedia

Supply service

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Product directly obtained from the ecosystem, such as food, timber, energies, biochemical or genetic resources, medicinal, ornamental and fresh water resources.
Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Surf cleaning

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Beach cleaning consisting of moving hydrocarbon-contaminated coastal sediments into the surf zone for their natural washing by the waves. The pollutant, which agglutinates on the surface behind the sediments, is then recovered with catching nets.
Source
according to the Commission for Enrichment of the French Language

Surface Water (Untreated Water) Directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Directive 75/440/EEC of 16 June 1975 concerning the required quality of surface water intended for the production of drinking water in the Member States. It sets out the requirements that help to ensure that the surface freshwater used or intended to be used in food production meets certain standards and is adequately treated before being distributed. Groundwater, brackish waters or water intended for groundwater recharge are not concerned by this Directive. This directive was transcribed into French law by Decree of 12/19/1991, which also transcribed other directives (bathing water, fish life, shellfish waters, etc). This Directive was repealed on 22 December 2007 by article 22 of the Water Framework Directive. But some articles of the French Code of Public Health still refer to the untreated water…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Surface waters

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All waters flowing or stagnant on the surface of the earth (lithosphere). Surface waters include inland waters (rivers, lakes, canals, reservoirs), with the exception of groundwater, and coastal and transitional waters.
Source
According to AFB

Surveillance monitoring

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Control aiming to assess, as part of the water status monitoring programme, the overall status of water and (long-term) evolution trends of the river basin, these changes being either natural or caused by human activities.

Source
According to AFB

Suspended solid (SS)

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Solid inorganic or organic particle suspended in water. The water appears cloudy and colourful.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Sustainable Development

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Development that strives to meet the current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. For such a purpose, modes of production and consumption must respect the human or natural environment and allow all the inhabitants of the Earth to meet their basic needs: food, shelter, clothing, education, working, living in a healthy environment. Applied to the economy, it has three dimensions: economic (efficiency, profitability), social (social responsibility) and environmental (environmental impact).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Sustainable fertilization

Updated on 05/03/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Fertilization method adapting the dosage of fertilizers to the real needs of crops. This method of fertilization integrates environmental objectives, particularly those relating to the preservation and restoration of the quality of water and soil. For example, for nitrates, this consists in carefully determining the quantity and the methods of spreading them on a plot in anticipation of crop needs, in order to limit the risks of water pollution by migration of surpluses.

Source
d'après OIEau

Sustainable irrigation

Updated on 05/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Irrigation method that make of good use of irrigation water with calculated inputs to ensure optimal agricultural production. It aims to avoid wasting and draining substances that may be polluting due to excess water.

Source
d'après Ministère en charge de l'environnement et AFB

Swamp

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Spongy land, saturated with water, where marshes extend, and which is difficult to access because of a dense aquatic vegetation.

Source
d'après CNRTL

Swell

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Periodic oscillation of sea level. Swell occurs sporadically, depending on unequal pressures and friction of the wind, and is generated by these differences in pressure. It is formed by the wind far away from the observation area, and has a substantially sinusoidal oscillation profile, thus very regular, and spreads over long distances, unlike the
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Symbiosis

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Lasting or constant association needed and having mutual benefits between two living organisms. There are different types of symbioses.
Source
According to Ifremer

Synthetic data

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Raw or processed data that have been analyzed and calculated to obtain more concise information. For this purpose, these data can be regrouped according to geographical, time and/or professional criteria (e.g. the average yield of wastewater treatment plants per Department, the annual production of sludge per tank, etc).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment