Glossaire de A à Z


Rainwater pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution of rainwater. If rainwater is naturally polluted (drops of water can only reach a sufficient size to fall to the ground when there are solid particles in the atmosphere to initiate the nucleation process, part of the urban air pollutants is therefore driven to the ground during rainy periods), the pollutant concentrations are however extremely low, and in most situations, rainwater is of drinking water quality when it reaches the ground. The most common limiting factor is pH (acid rain), but this acidity is very quickly buffered by the materials on which water flows or passes through.
Source
according to Greater Lyon Urban Community

Ramsar area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Protected area under the Ramsar convention. This intergovernmental treaty signed on 2 February 1971 in Ramsar (Iran) and ratified by France in 1986, deals with Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitats.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

RAMSAR Convention

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Intergovernmental treaty signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 to be used as a framework for national actions and international cooperation for the conservation and sound use of wetlands and of their resources.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Rank of a watercourse

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Expression of the length and size of a watercourse, depending on the tributaries (number and size) it collects downstream from its headwaters. Rank allows comparing streams of the same size in a homogeneous physiographic unit.
Source
According to Cemagref

Raw data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Elementary data coming from a measurement (meter index, water depth at a gauging station, etc), that have not yet been validated, or organized in a database, nor interpreted.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Re-meandering

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Technique of lengthening the layout and reducing the slope of a river to make its morphology more sinuous and thus restore its hydrobiological functions.
Source
according to CELF

Reach

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Section of a stream of a few hundred metres to several kilometres. A reach change can be defined by the confluence of a tributary, changes in the morphology of the bed or of the valley or by changes in riverside vegetation, these variables reflecting changes in hydrology, chemical composition of water and disturbance regime.
Source
According to Cemagref

Recharge

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Total volume of external water added to the saturation zone of an aquifer.
Source
According to Eurostat

Recurrence

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Means the return of a phenomenon, an event. The return period is the average time interval between two returns of the same phenomenon. It is generally defined with respect to the frequency.
Source
According to Ifremer

Recycled water

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Water that has been subjected to wastewater treatment and delivered to a user as recovered wastewater. This is the direct supply of treated effluents to the user. Wastewater discharged into a watercourse and used downstream is not taken into consideration, nor is recycling within industrial sites.

Source
d'après Eurostat

Red mud

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sludge generated by bauxite processing in the manufacture of alumina and aluminium. Its colour comes from the iron oxides it contains. Red mud is highly alkaline and contains heavy metals. It is usually stored in basins, where it is dried by evaporation, or discharged at sea.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Reference data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

The data most shared in an information system (e.g. the identifiers of the various entities, whether gauging stations on rivers, water abstractions, etc). The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) distributes the reference data sets of the Water Information System (WIS).

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Reference data bank

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
National data bank, either centralized or decentralized, managed by an identified stakeholder on behalf of the stakeholders involved in the Water Information System (WIS) and single recognized source for a type of validated data, a type of use and at a certain validation level
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Reference dataset

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A set of homogeneous reference data which are codified and listed. The reference datasets established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) are regularly evolving alphanumeric or geographic data. Alphanumeric data are lists of codes (e.g. codes of parameters such as chlorine demand (1397), methods, stakeholders, classifications, measuring stations, etc). Geographic data are geo-located objects (e.g. water bodies, measuring stations,

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Reference frame

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Specifications and structured set of pieces of information used for the implementation of an information system, providing a common framework for several applications. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces specification documents and datasets constituting the reference frame for the data of the Water Information System (WIS).

Source
According to Commission of IT and electronic components

Reference Network

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Network of measuring stations for defining reference conditions for the monitoring of water bodies.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Reference or basic low water flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Legal reference flow, defined as the monthly low-flow recurring every five years (or frequency of 1/5, i.e. occurring one year in five), known by the acronym QMNA 5 (frequency 1/5).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Reference site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Site on a body of water or a river selected for the good quality of the aquatic ecosystem which gives a reference for characterizing the quality of other bodies of water or rivers.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Regional ecological coherence scheme

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Framework Document elaborated in each metropolitan area, by the Regional Council and the regional prefect, in association with local stakeholders, locally developed the green and blue infrastructure. The Regional Ecological Coherence Scheme (SRCE) is to identify biodiversity reservoirs and ecological corridors that link them. It includes an action plan to ensure the preservation and restore ecological continuity identified while taking into account land use planning issues and human activities. The SRCE must also be compatible with the planning documents, such as territorial coherence…

Source
according to IOWater

Regional natural park

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A vast area where the community stakeholders look for a development respectful of the natural balances, and sometimes a solution for maintaining declining traditional activities. A regional natural park (RNP) is usually managed by a public inter-municipal cooperation organisation, an open mixed syndicate whose board of directors is composed of elected representatives of the member communities (municipalities, departments, regions) and sometimes socio-economic partners. PNRs are classified for a 12-year renewable period.
Source
according to the Observatory of the Mediterranean Forest

Regional Phytosanitary Group

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Working Group established under the Prefect's authority in each region, with the aim of implementing actions to reduce water pollution by pesticides, based on the approach (analysis, action plan, assessment) recommended by the orientation committee for farming practices respectful of the environment (CORPEN).
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Register of protected areas

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Register established on a river basin scale identifying areas designated as requiring special protection under the Community legislation in force: vulnerable areas ("nitrates" Directive), sensitive zones ("Urban Wastewater Treatment" Directive), areas designated under the "Natura 2000" directive, etc. The deadline for establishing the register of protected areas was December 2004. This register should then be regularly updated.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Regulated flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Flow resulting from human action and thus being completely disrupted: transfers from one basin to another through developed natural and/or artificial water systems.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Regulating service

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Service obtained from the regulating processes of ecosystems, such as climate regulation, the water regulating processes (aquifer recharge or flood control), purification of water or disease regulation. Regulating services are processes that channel natural phenomena and have a positive impact on human well-being: e.g. protection against natural disasters, mitigation of water and air pollution, etc.
Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Regulatory shellfish group

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Group of shellfish intended for human consumption, defined by the Ministerial Decree of 21 May 1999 concerning the safety classification and the monitoring of production areas and relaying areas for live shellfish. There are three groups in which the different
Source
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Rehabilitation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Act of repairing damaged or blocked functions of an ecosystem by using heavier solutions to restore the ecosystem to its dynamic path and recover a high level of resilience.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Rehabilitation of a network/system

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Rehabilitation of a network of drinking water supply, sanitation or of degraded industrial fluid. The rehabilitation of a network contributes to restore optimal conditions for its exploitation
Source
According to the Auxiliary Society of Water Suppliers

Relaying area

Updated on 16/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Area with adequate safety where live shellfish are transferred to be left under the control of the inspection service, for the time necessary to reduce contamination to an acceptable level for human consumption (order of 21 May 21 1999).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Remote Sensing

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All sciences and techniques used for the remote sensing (without direct contact) of objects and for determining their characteristics (physical, biological, etc).
Source
According to Ifremer

Reporting

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Act of reporting on the implementation of the European directives and international conventions (implementation report) or giving the required information on environmental status and pressures on the environment. In the case of the
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Reproductive toxicity

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Adverse effects on male and female reproductive systems that may result from exposure to environmental agents. Toxicity may be expressed as an alteration of the reproductive organs, the endocrine system or affecting the outcome of pregnancy. These effects may affect the onset of puberty, the production and transport of gametes, the reproductive cycle, sexual behaviour, fertility, pregnancy, parturition, lactation, development, etc.
Source
According to BRGM

Reserved flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Minimum flow possibly increased with the authorized withdrawals on the influenced section. It is expressed in the specifications and water regulations in particular. Often mistakenly used instead of minimum flow.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Reserved watercourse

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
A watercourse for which, under the Act of 16 October 1919, amended by the Act of July 1980 on energy savings and the use of heat and the law of June 1984 on freshwater fishing, no authorization or concession is given for new…
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Reservoir of biodiversity

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Area with a particularly rich biodiversity, in which species find enabling conditions to develop, disperse and potentially colonise other areas.
Source
according to CELF

Reshaping

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Modification and homogenization of the longitudinal profile of the river (slope), always to increase its discharge capacity. Reshaping consists in equalizing the slope of the stream, changing the zoning of the longitudinal profile. This operation requires the removal of riparian vegetation and
Source
According to AFB

Resilience

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The ability of an ecosystem to withstand and survive alterations or disturbances affecting its structure or functioning, and eventually find a new balance.
Source
according to CELF

Resource cost

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value of lost opportunities due to the choice of the resource allocation to an activity rather than to another when the resource is scarce. This is the difference in benefits between the alternative that generates the greatest benefits and the alternative chosen.
Source
According to François Etner (economist)

Response variable

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Degree of freedom available to the river to perform its basic functions, i.e. carry the liquid flow and sediment load. They are geometrical parameters (width, depth, bottom slope, amplitude and length of the meanders), size of transported sediments, current velocity.
Source
According to Cemagref

Restoration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action of enabling the return to the previous status of an ecosystem degraded by neglect, or the purposive control of human action.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Resurgence

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Reappearance above ground of water infiltrated in limestone rock in the form of a spring.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Retention

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Process to keep data in a database from which it is easy to extract them through queries. Databases can be centralized at the national level (reference databases) or at basin level, or shared through multiple websites, according to a single data model.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Retention basin

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A storm management basin for the temporary storage of runoff water to protect homes and structures during periods of heavy rain.
Source
according to the Intermunicipal Sanitation Syndicate of the Enghien-les-Bains region

Returned water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water withdrawn from a freshwater spring and discharged into freshwaters without use or prior to its use, mainly in mining or construction activities. Discharges into the sea are not considered.
Source
According to Eurostat

Reusable data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Under Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament, they are public data legally or de facto available or reusable, including for commercial use.
Source
According to AFB

Reuse of public data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Refers to any use of public data outside their use by public services. This reuse can target commercial use.
Source
According to AFB

Revegetation

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All operations to cover a space with vegetation, grass, shrubs or trees.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Revitalization

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Repair or restoration of a watercourse or part thereof, so as to improve the ecological (biological, chemical and geomorphological) properties of living organisms.
Source
According to Bernard Lachat (biologist)

Revitalization of an environment

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Action to rehabilitate a more or less artificialized environment to its original and natural status. By trying to rehabilitate all the physical characteristics of the environment (e.g. meanders recovered in an improved river), revitalization aims to recover all the initial potentials of the environment in terms of biological diversity, self-cleaning capacity, etc. Most ambitious than restoration, revitalization aims to globally recreate the ecological functioning and

Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Right of access to information

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the law, this means the right of any person, whether or not a French citizen, to ask a public utility to consult or obtain a copy of documents or information held by the said public utility. The right of access concerns administrative documents and environmental information. This measure intends to improve the transparency of public utilities.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Right to water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The right to be provided an adequate, physically accessible and affordable supply of safe water of acceptable quality for personal and domestic use. An adequate amount of safe water is needed to prevent mortality from dehydration and to reduce the risk of waterborne disease transmission as well as for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygiene.
Source
according to the World Water Council

Rio Convention

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Agreement signed on 5 June at the Earth Summit in Rio on Biological Diversity (CBD). The main objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity is to maintain "variability in the number of living organisms". Other advanced goals include regulating access to genetic resources and the equitable distribution between host countries and operators of the benefits coming from these resources.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Riparian

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Vegetation that grows on the rivers banks or bodies of water located in the border zone between land and water (ecotones). It consists of special populations because of the presence of water during periods of varying length (willow, alder, ash-tree at the edge, maple and elm at higher height, pedunculate oak, hornbeam on the top of the river banks). We distinguish: afforestation of river banks - stream-side trees (usually managed under river maintenance programmes) located close to the minor bed, from the alluvial forest that extends more broadly in the floodplain. The nature of the riparian vegetation is closely related to surface and subsurface flows. It acts upon the geometry of the bed, on river bank stability, water quality, aquatic life, plant and animal biodiversity.

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Riparian corridor

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Strip of natural vegetation located along a river, and which differs from the surrounding matrix, including the river bank, the floodplain and part of the alluvial terraces. The presence of a stream or wood is not enough to make corridors. It is their conduction function that defines them. At the regional level, the riparian corridor appears to be a relatively uniform area (line of trees). At the local level, sedimentary and hydrological constraints provide variability of conditions resulting in a mosaic of habitats. The corridor is a transition zone between the water system and terrestrial system. Thus,…

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Rising Tide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the tidal cycle between low tide and the high tide that follows. Opposite to falling tide. Also referred to as "flood" or "flood tide".
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Risk

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measuring the effects of a hazard in an area. Risk significance therefore depends on the hazard but also on exposed challenges (populations, property and the environment) and on their vulnerability. There is no risk when the area exposed to a hazard is devoid of human, material and environmental challenges.
Source
According to SOeS

Risk Exposure Plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Plan for delimiting, at municipal or inter-municipal level, areas exposed to predictable natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, avalanches or ground movements. The Risk Exposure Plan (REP) sets out the appropriate measures to prevent
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Risk of not achieving good status

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Risk that, in 2015, the water bodies of a given area will not achieve the objectives set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD).
Source
according to the Artois-Picardy Water Agency

Risk prevention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Anticipation of phenomena that may cause or aggravate health, economic or environmental problems. Risk prevention aims to eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence of hazardous phenomena at the origin of the risk.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Risk related to flood-prone areas

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Injury to life, health or damage that may occur in floodplains. In those, we can distinguish several levels of risk depending on the severity of damage to be feared, taking into account the flooding height, flow velocity (for the flooding considered) and the vulnerability of exposed sites.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River bank

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Permanent edge of a watercourse, located above the normal water level. The river bank is characterized by its cross-sectional shape (gently sloping bank, steep bank), its composition (sand, marl), its vegetation (herbaceous, shrub. Frequently subject to overflow and erosion from the stream, the banks are habitats for many species. They allow the passage of discrete animals like water rat, muskrat, water shrew or the Pyrenean desman. Some changes in the water level allow boulders to appear and form excellent perches for the dipper. Sand martins enjoy the banks to do their nest. Crawfish, fish and macroinvertebrates use shelters on the banks to hide, breed or feed.

Source
According to AFB

River bank protection

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Action to reduce any type of erosion of the river banks. Depending on the objective and hydraulic forces acting on the bank, various methods can be used, from plant engineering to heavier constructions (masonry/concrete/rock revetment, gabions, piling, etc).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River basin (UK)

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the Carthage database repository, a large catchment area (river basin) divided into several hydrographic regions, themselves divided into hydrographic sectors, hydrographic subsectors and hydrographic areas.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

River basin head

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

The most upstream area of a watershed territory. The river basin head is the land where the small streams close to springs flow through.

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

Upstream portion of the catchment areas and by extension the upstream section of rivers which, in hilly areas in particular, are often less exposed to anthropogenic pressures than the downstream parts (but still very fragile) and from this point of view are reference sections to be preserved.

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

River basin management plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Planning document for water management, established for each basin or group of basins, which sets out basic guidelines to achieve sound and sustainable water resources management, determines the objectives for water bodies and plans the necessary provisions to achieve the environmental objectives, to prevent the deterioration of water status and give fundamental orientations. The SDAGEs, approved for the first time in 1996 under the Water Act of 1992, have been updated in late 2009 to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). They now include management plans under this Directive. The SDAGE is developed and adopted by the

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River diversion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Temporary or definitive man-made change in the layout of a watercourse by totally or partially diverting the water flow.
Source
according to AFB and Réseau ferré de France (French railway network)

River Fish Index

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Index for assessing the biological quality of the water of a river through an analysis of fish populations.
Source
According to AFB

River free space

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Area of the floodplain in which river channels enable lateral translations allowing mobilizing sediments and the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

River hydrodynamics

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Science that studies the physical behaviour of a fluid consisting of water and the materials it contains. This is an application of hydrodynamics to streams; it is a branch of fluid mechanics. It helps to understand the stream evolutionary process: action of the fluid on bed materials, flow characteristics, dissipation of the stream energy when transporting these materials.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River improvement

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Action on a river for recovering the entire bed and river banks of the watercourse to achieve the priority goal of increasing the hydraulic capacity of the targeted segment. This implies flow acceleration and therefore an increased flood

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

River mobility area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Area of the floodplain within which the riverbed can move in accordance with the decree of 24/01/2001 relating to the exploitation of quarries. The river is a dynamic system, moving in space and time: it constantly adjusts to fluctuations in the liquid flow. These adjustments result in lateral translations allowing the mobilization of sediments and the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The mobility
Source
According to Cemagref

River module

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Multi-year mean flow at a point in a stream. The module is assessed by the average annual discharge over a period of observation long enough to be representative of the measured or reconstructed flow rates.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River morphology

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Study of the shape of rivers.
Source
according to AFB

River syndicate

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Syndicate of local authorities (municipalities, departments) geographically competent over a valley or a substantial portion thereof, whose purpose is to conduct all actions concerning the management of a river and of its tributaries (cleaning, habitat restoration, maintenance, facilitation of local politics on this issue, etc.).
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

River training

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Action to establish and/or manage a set of facilities on the river or in the river basin to reduce variations in the hydrological regime of a river (significant low-flow, flash flood, etc).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

River-basin district level

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Technical body gathering the basin delegated DREAL (regional directorate for the environment, development and housing), the water agency and the National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environments. The river-basin district level is responsible for proposing the technical content of the draft master plan for water development and management (SDAGE) to the basin committee and preparing draft programmes of measures and monitoring programmes on behalf of the

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Rotating biological contactor

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Biological treatment process at fixed culture on carriages. These rotating biological contactors (RBC), generally polystyrene, measure 2 to 3 m in diameter and rotate about a horizontal axis by being partly immersed. Sludges, putrescible very produced by this system are removed by a secondary clarifier.

Source
according to Recyconsult

Run-off

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Water driving substances attached to fine particles through the soil. Nitrates and some pesticides in particular (or their degradation by-products) can reach groundwater and affect its quality up to making water unfit for consumption.

Source
According to BRGM

Running water

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Surface water moving more or less rapidly depending on the flow, the relief, or on the bottom roughness. For example, streams and rivers are running water.

Source
according to Regional Council of New Aquitaine and FNE

Runoff

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Part of atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow) which flows on the ground surface and drainage basin slopes.

Source
According to BRGM

Runoff water

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Rainwater flowing on the ground.
Source
According to BRGM

Runoff/rain water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water which, after reaching the ground or a surface, runs on the receiving surfaces. Runoff water usually comes from rain water, but also from snow melt, hail or ice falling or forming naturally on a property, and infiltration water.
Source
according to the water data partners’ network of Poitou-Charentes