Glossaire de A à Z


Observation data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Data relating to a quality element or a parameter, produced by a control operation.
Source
According to AFB

Obstacle to flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Any object or event obstructing the natural flow of a river. Obstacle to flow includes dams, sills, locks, etc, that affect the flow of water.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Ocean

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the hydrological meaning, a thin water layer that covers part of the Earth. In the geophysical sense, it means the areas where this water layer of several kilometres thick covers grounds where the crust is composed of basalt or related materials and not of continental materials (granites, etc). Therefore shelf seas or epicontinental seas are not part of the ocean in the geophysical sense.
Source
According to Ifremer

Oceanic current

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Imagery of the movement of ocean water generated by the effect of the rotation of the Earth. Some currents move on the surface, when the transported water is hot (as in the "Gulf Stream" in particular), or deep, when water is cold (e.g. the "Arctic and Antarctic" currents).
Source
According to Ifremer

Oceanography

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Study of the marine environment and ocean floor.
Source
according to the National Centre for Textual and Lexical Resour

Oligo-mesohaline lagoon

Updated on 28/04/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Lagune dont la salinité moyenne annuelle est située entre 0,5 et 5 PSU (oligo) et entre 5 - 18 PSU (méso).

Source
d'après OFB et Ifremer

oligochaete

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sediment-dwelling worm used to determine sediment quality or even the environmental contamination of the medium by micro-pollutants.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

On-site sanitation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

All treatment processes that remove wastewater from an individual single-family home usually on the plot on which the house is built, without any wastewater conveyance. An extension (rarer) concerns the wastewater treatment of some neighbouring houses on private land. It is still on-site sanitation but it is regrouped. On the contrary, a group having a small collecting system and a treatment facility (spreading, filters, etc.) on community land is considered community sanitation. On-site sanitation is first defined as opposed to community sanitation.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Open data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Refers to a process that aims to make truly re-usable the data generated by an organization, allowing their free and open reuse by proposing them in formats that facilitate reuse.
Source
According to AFB

Open sea

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the sea where there is no more land marker.
Source
According to Ifremer

Operational monitoring

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Control to establish, as part of the water status monitoring programme, the status of water bodies which are not fully guaranteed to achieve their environmental objectives, and assess the effectiveness of programmes of measures on them.

Source
According to AFB

Operator of a classified facility

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Any individual or entity that operates a classified facility (holder of the authorization order), as well as the person who has or has been granted decisive economic power over it, in accordance with Law No. 76/663 of 19 July 1976 and
Source
According to BRGM

Opportunity cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value of lost opportunities due to the choice of the resource allocation to an activity rather than to another when the resource is scarce. In the field of water, e.g. the value of irrigated maize (UK) / corn (US) that could be produced by the water of a stream if the latter was not used for the production of drinking water or hydropower.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Option value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Use value given to the conservation of an asset for future use.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Order

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Administrative decision of general interest (e.g. ministerial order of 29 February 1992 laying down a number of rules for all cattle farms subject to authorization) or individual (e.g. Prefect's order setting out the specific rules that the classified facility operated by Mr. X must comply with). Orders can be issued by ministers (ministerial or inter-ministerial orders), prefects (prefectural or prefect's orders) or mayors (municipal orders). The

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Organic farming

Updated on 13/10/2021
Définition
Sens commun

Un Label. Méthode de production agricole excluant le recours aux produits chimiques de synthèse utilisés par l’agriculture industrielle et intensive. Les agriculteurs labellisés « bio » sont regroupés en fédérations avec des cahiers des charges à respecter. Ces derniers comprennent en général l’utilisation d’engrais d’origine naturelle, l’interdiction d’intrants d’origine chimique, la rotation des cultures et des élevages peu intensifs de manière à préserver les sols.

Source
d'après la Cité de l'agriculture

Organic matter

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Matter generated by living beings (plants, animals, mushrooms and other decomposers including micro-organisms).
Source
according to Wikipedia

Organic micropollutant

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Organic active ingredient, usually synthesized by the chemical industry, whose accumulation, even at low concentrations, can be toxic. The main organic micropollutants controlled are volatile organic compounds (VOC), hydrocarbons, andpolychlorinated biphenyl(PCB).

Source
According to Seine-Normandie Water Agency

Orphan site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Polluted site for which the people responsible of the pollution are either not identified or found, or either insolvent or refuse to meet their responsibilities.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Oslo Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping from ships and aircraft. The Oslo Commission was responsible for administering the Oslo Convention; in 1992, it combined with the Paris Commission, before the new Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention) entered into force in 1998.
Source
according to OSPAR Commission

OSPAR Convention

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Convention, signed in 1992, guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. It brought together and updated the 1972 Oslo Convention on dumping of waste at sea and the 1974 Paris Convention on marine pollution from land-based sources.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Outcrop

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a geological layer visible on the surface.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Outlet

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Stream which discharges to the downstream part of a river basin the waters of a lake or of any other wetland.
Source
According to AFB

Outstanding area

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
An environment to be considered at the highest degree in an (international, national, basin, local) ranking scale because of its patrimonial, ecological value. The notion of ranking with the "outstanding" term introduces concepts of value.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Overfishing

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action of fishing too much of the natural production of a particular marine product.
Source
According to Ifremer

Oxbow lake

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of an old meander or braid of a river. Oxbow lakes are more or less disconnected from the main channel due to the latter's displacement over time and to sedimentation mechanisms. Depending on their age, season and weather context, oxbow lakes can be with water or dry. These very rich evolutionary environments are favourable for breeding fish and some amphibians.
Source
According to AFB

Oyster farming

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Traditional breeding of oysters.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council