Glossaire de A à Z


NAF Code for the activity of an enterprise

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Identifier of the main activity of the self-employed worker or of the business enterprise among the activities listed in the Nomenclature of French Activities (NAF). Formerly APE code (from 1973 to 1992), since then the new NAF, this code is now composed as follows: e.g. "20.4Z" for the manufacture of wooden containers, "28.5A" for the treatment and coating of metals.
Source
According to BRGM

National Environmental Health Plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
National plan to address the concerns of the French people about the health consequences in the short and medium term of exposure to certain pollutants in their environment; the National Environmental Health Plan (PNSE) must integrate eco-toxicology and eco-epidemiology in conventional sanitary approaches. It covers the whole population and involves many stakeholders: Associations for Environmental Protection, Ministries of the Environment, Health, Labour, Agriculture, Economy, and many agencies and research teams.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency, Ministry of Health and Ministry for the Environment

National framework for water data

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Tool for organizing, streamlining and sharing data between the various data producers on the entire French territory. The National framework for water data (SNDE) has governance mechanisms and devices for the production, storage, processing, use and dissemination of data and is based on common methodologies, a repository of shared data and a system for quality management. Regulations related…

Source
According to AFB

National Park

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Remarkable area of the territory that has been classified as "National Park & nbsp;" because of its exceptional natural wealth, from the point of view of landscape quality and natural, historical or cultural heritage. The establishment of a national park requires a certification by the State. It usually generates specific regulations for the protection of fauna and flora.
Source
according to the Observatory of the Mediterranean Forest

National Service for Water Data and Common Reference Frames Management

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Network of organizations contributing to the Water Information System (WIS) in charge of building a common language for water data and homogenize the data exchanged between the various actors. The National Service for Water Data and Common Reference Frames Management (Sandre) has a central technical secretariat and data administrators in organizations contributing to the water information system. Its role and organization are defined in the decree of 26 July 2010 approving the national plan for water data (SNDE).

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

National Water Committee

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Advisory organization which reports to the Minister for the Environment, the National Water Committee's mission is to give its opinion on the geographical districts of basins or group of basins, on all development and water distribution projects having a national scope as well as major regional developments; on draft decrees on the protection of

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Native species

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Species found inside its natural range, past or present, and its dispersal potential.

Source
according to AFB

Natura 2000

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

A network of European outstanding environments which are proposed by each Member State of the European Union and which correspond to Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) under the European Directive of 21 May 1992 (known as "Flora Fauna Habitats" Directive) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) under the European Directive of 2 April 1979 (known as "Birds Directive"). These areas are identified in…

Source
According to Ifremer

Natural Area of Ecological, Faunistic or Floristic Interest

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Natural Area of special Ecological, Faunistic or Floristic Interest (ZNIEFF) which is the subject of a national scientific inventory under the authority of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle/National Natural History Museum (MNHN) on behalf of the Ministry for the Environment. Two types are well identified: type I: areas of outstanding biological interest, areas of type II covering the large natural areas up to date, the ZNIEFF inventory concerns: wetlands, streams, marshes, bogs, moors, for example.
Source
According to AFB

Natural environment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A more or less vast and wild area, interesting from a biological, ecological or landscape viewpoint, and which requires appropriate protection measures. A natural environment consists of a multitude of intertwined habitats.
Source
according to the Calvados Mixed Syndicate of Coastal Natural Spaces

Natural eutrophic lake

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Lake (body of water, pond, etc.) whose waters enriched with organic matter (containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium for example) are places of an algal and bacterial proliferation.

Source
according to Larousse dictionary

Natural flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Flow of a watercourse undisturbed by human activities (in the absence of any hydraulic structure in particular). A value is estimated only for monthly and annual flow rates.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Natural monopoly

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Situation in which the supplier is the only one to sell a given product or service to a multitude of buyers. A monopoly is called natural when production yields are increasing (especially because of fixed costs much higher than variable costs).
Source
According to AFB

Natural mortality

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Instantaneous rate of disappearance of individuals for reasons other than those due to fishing (old age, disease, predation).
Source
According to Ifremer

Natural risk

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Threat of a dangerous event caused by a natural phenomenon, called hazard, having damaging, unforeseen or badly prevented effects on developments, structures and people, the stakes being more or less serious, even catastrophic, according to their vulnerability. A natural risk is the confrontation between a hazard of natural origin and human, economic or environmental stakes.
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of the-Loire region

Naturalized species

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens technique

An introduced species that meets ecological conditions favourable to its sustainable establishment over time that can establish populations in an autonomous manner and integrated into the ecosystem.

Source
according to MNHN

Nature reserve

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Pursuant to Act No. 76-629 of 10 July 1976 (art. L.242-1 and following articles of the Rural Code), nature reserves are classified areas when conservation of fauna, flora, soil, water, mineral deposits and excavations and, in general, of…
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Nautical meteorology

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Marine meteorology when it concerns navigation. It essentially deals with sea conditions and forecast, visibility, wind, etc.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Nautical mile

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Unit of length traditionally used in navigation, i.e. 1,852 m. Not to be mistaken with the mile, Anglo-Saxon measurement of length, i.e. 1,609 m.
Source
According to Ifremer

Navigation dam

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
A structure intended to ensure a sufficient and relatively horizontal water level to allow navigation. It can be fixed or mobile.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Neap tide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Low tide occurring when the moon is close to the first and last quarter.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Needle dam/weir

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dam consisting of a succession of solid frames (foldable metal frames) connected by a bridge and each supporting a movable part - the needle - which can be raised or lowered.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Net consumption

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fraction of a volume of surface or ground water, withdrawn and not returned to the aquatic environment (river or aquifer), i.e. not discharged after use (water used by plants and evapotranspiration, evaporation, etc.).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Net water withdrawal

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Gross withdrawal to which the volume of returned water is subtracted.
Source
According to Eurostat

Nitrate removal

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action to remove nitrates by filtration through an ion exchange resin.
Source
according to the General Council of Seine-et-Marne

Nitrate-fixing intermediate crops

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Specific cultivation, planted during the period between crops rotation, when bare ground is usually exposed. These selected crops are fast growing species (white mustard, radish, canola, phacelia, vetch, trefoil, etc.) allowing to fix the excess nitrogen that is still on the ground, in order to prevent it to migrate to the groundwater or to the streams, washed away by rain. These crops also have the benefit of reducing the soil erosion and enhancing biodiversity.

Source
According to the Chamber of Agriculture in french region the Center

Nitrates

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Major nitrogen feeds for plant growth; they play a significant role as fertilizers. All natural waters normally contain nitrates at doses which vary with the season (about a few milligrams per litre). In many ground and surface waters, there is today an increase in the nitrate concentration from non-point (run-off of nitrates from inorganic or organic fertilizers that are not used by plants) or point sources (discharge of domestic, agricultural or industrial wastewater). The progressive nitrate enrichment of water can compromise the latter's use for drinking water production and leads, in some cases, to significant algae development. This eutrophication phenomenon is accentuated by the presence of phosphorus.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Nitrates Directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Directive No. 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources, called "Nitrates Directive". It aims to reduce water pollution caused or induced by nitrates from agricultural sources and prevent further pollution of this kind. It includes: the designation of nitrate vulnerable zones; the establishment of one or more codes of good agricultural practice (CGAP) (use of nitrogen fertilizers and land management) implemented on a voluntary basis by farmers; the development of mandatory's actions programs (yearly schedules limiting or…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Nitrification

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
First phase of the biological removal of nitrogen, especially in wastewater treatment plants. Nitrification is the treatment of wastewater which aims to transform ammonium (NH4+) into nitrate (NO3-).
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Nitrogen balance

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Calculation allowing to highlight areas threatened by nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen balance aims to estimate the excess part on an area, evaluating the difference between the nitrogen inputs (mineral fertilization, animal waste, urban and industry inflows, atmospheric inputs) and the exports (consumption of plants, losses in gaseous form).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Agriculture and IOWater

Nitrogen cycle

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All of the processes and conversions of nitrogen, into different forms, in the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere (nitrous oxide, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen).

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Nitrogen surplus

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Excessive amount of Nitrogen brought to the crop, which is not used by the plant and stays on the ground after the harvest. The Nitrogen surplus can be calculated thanks to the nitrogen balance, which varies depending on the cultivation type and the agricultural practice.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Nodal point

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Key point for water management usually defined downstream of reference hydrographic units for sub-basin management plans (SAGEs) and/or within those units whose boundaries can be determined by the river

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Nomenclature

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Set of codified and listed terms. Some attributes of data dictionaries developed by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) must take for possible values the codes defined in a nomenclature (list of possible values constituting a reference dataset). Each code is especially associated with a name and definition. A nomenclature is materialized by a file in XML format.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Nomenclature of classified facilities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A regulatory document for grading classified facilities in accordance with the decree of 20 May 1953 and its amendments, with Act No. 76/663 of 19 July 1976 and Decree No. 77/1133 of 21 September 1977.
Source
According to BRGM

Non-anthropocentric value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value that can be instrumental and express the interest of entities for themselves and for the grouping in which they are included, or can be intrinsic and reflect the inherent value of an entity, regardless of any assessor, which gives it the statute of objective value.
Source
According to Foundation for Research on Biodiversity

Non-demesnial water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a river not owned by a national governmental body. Watercourses that are neither navigable nor floatable, brooks, torrents or small streams are considered to be private.
Source
according to French private forestry

Non-point source pollution

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
As opposed to "point source pollution", it is a pollution whose origins are usually known but for which it is impossible to geographically locate the discharges into the aquatic environments and aquifer systems. Agricultural practices on farmlands can be the source of "diffuse" pollution by draining pollutants into percolating or running waters.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Non-utilization value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value given to the mere existence of a good or service by an agent who will not use it. The non-utilization value involves two components: the existence value and the value to others.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company

Nursery area

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Area where fry and juvenile fish of a mobile species gather to feed and develop. A nursery area can be used by several species.
Source
according to IFREMER and IOWater

Nutrient

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All inorganic compounds and ions necessary for the nutrition of living organisms.
Source
according to Wikipedia