Glossaire de A à Z


Macro-invertebrate

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Animal visible to the naked eye (ie larger than 0.5 mm) that does not have a skeleton, bone or cartilage.

Source
d'après Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie

Macrophyte

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All aquatic or amphibious plants visible to the naked eye, or usually living in colonies visible to the naked eye.
Source
According to AFB

Macrophyte biological index for rivers

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Index assessing the biological status of rivers based on macrophytes. Applicable to the inland parts of rivers, it essentially reflects the degree of tropism (feeding process of plant organs and tissues) related to ammonium and orthophosphate contents, as well as the most obvious organic pollution.
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of the Loire reg

Macroplankton

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Large plankton visible to the naked eye. Jellyfish and ctenophora are part of the macroplankton.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Macropollutants

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All the suspended material in water, organic matter or nutrients, such as nitrogen or phosphate. They may occur naturally in water but their concentration increases with human activities (wastewater discharge, agriculture...). In contrast to micropollutants, which are toxic even at low concentration, macropolluants requires higher content to cause bad effects.

Source
According to SOeS

Main river

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A watercourse that flows out directly into the sea, whatever its importance.
Source
According to Ifremer

Major risk

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Risk which is characterized by both a low probability of occurrence and huge seriousness of a given event should it occurs (many casualties, extensive damage to property and the environment).
Source
According to SOeS

Mammal

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A class of tetrapod, viviparous vertebrate animals, which are essentially characterized by the presence of udders, hairs, a four-cavity heart, a developed nervous and encephalic system, a constant internal temperature and pulmonary-type respiration.

Source
according to CNRTL

Man made lake

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Large expanse of water surrounded by land, created or enlarged by man, where it is enough that the depth, surface area or volume are sufficient to cause sediment deposit or stratification.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Management Committee for migratory fish

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Assembly gathering representatives of local authorities, the managing administration, fishing federations, users, concession owners, owners and scientists responsible for establishing a management plan for migratory fish, in freshwater and seawater. The management committee for migratory fish is in charge, among other things, of giving an opinion on the

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Management cycle

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), it is a six-year management cycle (2010-2015, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, etc) given for achieving environmental objectives. Within a planning rationale, in each basin or group of basins, assessments and a register of protected areas were made in 2004 and programmes for monitoring water status were established late 2006. On this basis,

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Management plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Planning document established in each district (or basin or group of basins), as required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which sets out environmental objectives to be achieved, particularly with regard to the ecological status and chemical status of surface water bodies as well as the quantitative status and chemical status of groundwater bodies. In France, the river basin management plan (SDAGE) includes the management plan required by the WFD. The SDAGEs were updated in late 2009 to incorporate the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. The…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Mandatory

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value set out by a directive. Member States cannot retain a value less stringent than this value but may set a stricter one (guide value).
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Mangrove

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amphibious wooded area mainly consisting of mangrove trees found in muddy sediments of tropical coastlines.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Marine current

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Movement of an oceanic water body.

Source
d'après IFREMER

Marine Environment Action Plan (PAMM)

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Planning document aiming to achieve the good ecological status of marine waters, adopted under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Each PAMM focuses on a marine sub region, a sea space that is homogeneous in terms of ecological functioning. It consists of five elements, reviewed every six years: initial assessment of the status of the marine sub-region, definition of the good ecological status to be achieved, environmental objectives to achieve good ecological status, monitoring programme for assessing the status of marine waters, a programme of measures including the actions to be implemented to meet the environmental objectives and thus achieve good ecological status. Adopted by the Coordinating Prefects of the Marine Sub-Regions, the PAMMs, during their implementation process, organise a consultation with the stakeholders of the maritime and coastal world, through the maritime councils of the sub-regions (CMF), as well as a public consultation. In metropolitan France, four sub-regions are covered by a PAMM: the Channel-North Sea, Celtic Seas, Bay of Biscay and the Mediterranean Sea.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and IOWater

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis

Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing common framework and objectives for the protection and conservation of the marine environment by 2020. Member States shall assess the needs in the marine areas under their jurisdiction and develop their own strategies to achieve good ecological status of marine waters for which they are responsible. These strategies are designed to ensure the protection and restoration of European marine ecosystems and the ecological sustainability of economic activities linked to the marine environment.
Source
According to the European Commission

Marine turbine

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Submerged turbine that uses the energy of marine currents, and sometimes fluvial, to produce electricity.
Source
according to CELF

Maritime port

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Place where vessels can approach the coast and dock to unload their products and/or their passengers. There are natural harbours, but in most cases the port site has been built.

Source
According to Ifremer

Maritime transport/shipping

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mode of transporting goods or people by sea for the most part.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Marker

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Semantic marker element of computer languages, it serves to define and structure data contained in a document. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces data dictionaries and exchange scenarios that are based on marked formats such as XML.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Marshes

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Low region covered by shallow stagnant water, partly overgrown with vegetation adapted to humidity (reeds, aquatic plants, etc.).

Source
According to Larousse dictionnary
Sens technique

Wetland of a particular type characterized by effective management of water levels and regular maintenance of dikes and channels, essential conditions for these anthropogenic wetlands to retain their wet character and their qualities.

Source
According to SANDRE

Master plan for urban planning and development

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Planning document with a regulatory purpose setting out basic guidelines for an agglomeration and harmonizing State programmes as well as those of local authorities, public institutions and services. The master plan for urban planning and development (SDAU) is thus a coherent framework for action for urban planning and the restructuring of urban areas. In the Urban Planning Code, the expression "the Master Plan for Urban Planning and Development" was replaced by the "Master plan".
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Maximum depth

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Water level at the point of greatest depth at the average elevation for a natural body of water, and at the normal operating elevation for an artificial body of water.
Source
According to AFB

Meadow liable to flooding

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An area of a river floodplain. The meadows liable to flooding are rich areas from a biological standpoint, many protected animal or plant species being found there. Depending on the richness of the soil and waterlogging duration, the hedge hyssop, the fritillaria meleagris or snake's head, protected species in France, are blooming. The flora is often accompanied by an animal population composed of amphibians, small mammals and especially many insects. Among the latter, butterflies of high value to biodiversity, such as the marsh fritillary, the Alcon blue and large copper, or grasshoppers such as the Stethophyma grossum…
Source

Mean annual discharge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Mean annual discharge calculated over a period of observation long enough to be representative of the measured or reconstructed flow rates. It is frequently referred to as inter-annual module or module. It allows characterizing the flow of a "mean" year.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Mean monthly discharge or flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Arithmetic mean of the monthly flow rates in a given month, calculated over a period long enough to be representative. It can characterize the mean flow in a given month.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Meander

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Section between two successive turning points. On the outside of the curve (or extrados) the concave river bank is eroded, steep, and conducive to lateral erosion. On the inside of the curve (or intrados) the convex river bank is sloping gently, suitable for sedimentation of alluvial benches. There are two main types of meanders, incised meanders and free meanders, and an intermediate type, forced cut meanders.

Source
According to Cemagref

Meander cutoff

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A cutoff that occurs when two knees of the same meander meet. The cutoff then causes the abandonment of the meander to form a new channel.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Measurement site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Characteristic and representative subspace of the measuring station clearly identified and located to perform repetitive measurements for having an in-depth knowledge of the environment at the location of the station. Measurement sites are also places on the station where the sampler will make, whenever possible, its samples or in situ measurements. A site is usually dedicated to a substrate: water, sediments, Bryophytes,…
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Meta collecting system

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Collecting system corresponding to the grouping of a set of points with existing collecting devices. This group may for example correspond to the grouping of collecting devices located on the same territory, to a logical grouping of themes, to an operational goal, etc. Consistency of the meta device comes from common rules applicable to all associated collecting devices.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Metadata

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Data describing a resource (the resource may be, for example, other data). Metadata provide information on the nature of data. Metadata that can be associated with a document are: its title, author, date of creation, etc. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces metadata associated with reference datasets and specification documents. For example, the geographic metadata disseminated by Sandre are based on ISO standard 19115, and document metadata use the Dublin Core.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Metal pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Environmental contamination caused by the excessive amount of various metals, such as aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, zinc, etc., or even of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury or lead, that are more toxic than the previous ones.
Source
according to CNRS

Meteoric water

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water derived from atmospheric precipitations that has not yet reached the earth's surface.
Source
according to CELF

Meteorological drought

Updated on 18/03/2020
Définition
Sens commun

A type of drought corresponding to a pronounced and prolonged deficit of precipitation.

Source
according to Météo France

Meteorology

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science of the atmosphere.
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

METOX

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Overall index calculated from the concentrations of metals and metalloids, weighted by multipliers based on their degree of toxicity, according to the AFNOR standards T 90-112, T & T 90-113 90-119 (in METOX/day for
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Metrology

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that measures parameters with sensors. Metrology measures, for example, the speed of marine currents or the chemistry of water.
Source
according to IFREMER

Micro-irrigation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A kind of irrigation in which water is supplied under low pressure near the foot of plants, using pipes pierced with small holes.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Microbial eco-toxicology

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Science that studies the ecological consequences of physical, chemical pollution   or biological, regarding microbial communities, and the many functions they perform in ecosystems, as well as the   role   of & nbsp; microorganisms   in & nbsp; the   dynamics   of   pollutants   (source,   transfer,   degradation, transformation). Microbial eco-toxicology (Ecotoxicomic) is an emerging science that responds to a strong political and societal demand in relation to environmental concerns (pollution removal, indicators of the status of an ecosystem) and public health.
Source
according to CNRS

Microbiological quality

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water status characterized by a degree of presence of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa, etc) capable of causing a more or less great health risk.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Microorganism

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Microscopic organism (mainly bacteria and fungi) which is involved in the decomposition and biodegradation process.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Microplankton

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plankton of very small size, invisible to the naked eye.
Source
according to IFREMER

Micropollutant

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollutant usually found with low concentrations in a given medium (of the order of a microgram (µg) milligram (mg) per litre or per kilogram), which may have a significant impact on uses and ecosystems.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Middle sea fishing

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Fishing carried out by vessels that are absent for more than 96 hours and do not belong to the deep-sea fishery (vessels likely to be absent more than 20 days from their home base).

Source
d'après Conseil régional de Poitou-Charentes

Migration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Movement of a group of individuals between two distinct habitats under the influence of periodic (climate, food and spawning) or accidental factors, and their return later to the place of departure. Most frequently, these movements are necessary for the fulfilment of the life cycle of the species: gamic migration (related to reproduction), ontogenetic migration (related to the movement of individuals during their growth), trophic…
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Migratory fish

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fish that move periodically between their spawning and feeding grounds (home to the juveniles and adults). Some species live alternately in freshwater and seawater (diadromous fish), they are called "highly migratory species".
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Mineral matter

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Non-organic matter made of solid components.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Mineral micropollutant

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Mineral active product, mainly metals or metalloids, whose accumulation, even at low concentrations, affects the environment and organisms. The main mineral micro pollutants controlled (from both natural and anthropical occurrence) are cadmium, mercury, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, lead, etc.

Source
According to Seine-Normandie Water Agency

Mineral water

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Spring water whose composition in mineral elements allows a therapeutic use.

Source
According to Larousse dictionnary
Sens technique

Microbiologically sound natural water from a groundwater table or underground deposit exploited from one or more natural or drilled emergences. It shows a stability of its essential characteristics, in particular composition (mineral content, trace elements, etc.) and temperature at emergence, which is not affected by the flow of the water taken. It is distinguished from other waters intended for human consumption:

  • by its nature (characterized by its content of minerals, trace elements or other constituents),
  • by its original purity, both characteristics have been preserved intact due to the underground origin of this water which has been kept safe from any risk of pollution. These characteristics must have been assessed geologically and hydrogeologically, physically, chemically, microbiologically and, if necessary, pharmacologically, physiologically and clinically.
Source
According to SIGES Rhin-Meuse
Sens réglementaire

According to the circular No. DGS / EA4 / 2008/30 of 31 January 2008 on the safety of mineral waters, mineral water is water with a set of characteristics that are likely to bring its health-promoting properties. It testifies, within the framework of the known natural fluctuations, of a stability of its essential characteristics, in particular of composition and temperature at the emergence, which is not affected by the flow of the water taken.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Mineralisation

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
Process of chemical or biological degradation of soil organic matter into its basic chemical constituents.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Minimum annual mean flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Minimum annual mean flow calculated for n consecutive days. The VCN3 is used to characterize a situation of severe low water over a short period (3 days). The VCN30 gives information on the minimum resource over a month. Unlike low-flow (QMNA), it is calculated over a period of any 30 consecutive days. Using a sample of values of a

Source
According to SCHAPI

Minimum flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Value of the flow maintained downstream of a localized water intake (short-circuited stream, etc) under Article L-232-5 of the Rural Code. This article specifically refers to "structures to be built in the bed of a watercourse", and "devices" to be developed to maintain a certain flow rate. It requires letting pass a

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Mixed sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
This sludge is usually a mixture of primary sludge and biological sludge.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Mixture of water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Mixing occurring in bodies of water. These differ according to their characteristics of water mixture. There are thus: (i) dimictic lakes (which mix twice a year, with direct thermal stratification in the hot season and a reverse stratification when the lake freezes); (ii) meromictic lakes (characterized by a stable stratification of their deep waters); (iii) monomictic lakes (which mix once a year and can be divided into two categories: warm monomictic lakes - the water temperature at the surface and at the bottom does not fall below 4°C, and cold monomictic lakes - called polar, insofar as, in the hot season, the surface waters do not exceed 4°C); and (iv) polymictic lakes (which have an unstable thermal stratification, easily destroyed by wind, during summer).
Source
According to AFB

Molluscs

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic or terrestrial, non-segmented animal whose bilateral symmetry is sometimes altered. The body of a mollusc usually consists of a head, a visceral mass and a foot. The visceral mass is covered in whole or in part by a mantle, which secretes a calcareous shell.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Monitoring network

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A system for collecting data from several measuring stations having at least a targeting specific data (i.e. network for hydrometric measurements, piezometric measurement network) and which are carried out measurements or draw samples for later analysis. Each network meets common rules aimed at ensuring the consistency of observations, including the density and purpose of the measuring stations, the selection of compulsory parameters and the choice of measurement protocols, the determining of a periodicity to be complied with. All these rules are described in a protocol.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Monitoring Programme

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All provisions (location of monitoring sites, monitored quality elements, controlled parameters or groups of parameters, control frequencies, monitoring methods, etc) related to the monitoring of water status in a basin or group of basins under the Water Framework Directive, in order to establish a coherent and comprehensive picture of the status of these waters. This programme includes: (i) quantitative monitoring of rivers and water bodies; (ii) monitoring of the ecological status, chemical status and

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Monitoring site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Station located on a hydrographic entity (river, lake, canal, etc), in which measurements or samples are made for physico-chemical, microbiological ... analyses to determine the quality of the aquatic environments in this area. It concerns a space in which it is possible to make measurements at different sites deemed consistent and representative of the station


Source
According to AFB

Monthly discharge

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Average flow rate during a month: it is most often obtained by adding the average daily rates of the month and by dividing the result by the number of days in the month.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Monthly mean flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Mean for a given month, of average daily flow rates.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Monthly precipitation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Cumulative rainfall height at a location during a month.
Source
according to METEO FRANCE

Morphogenetic flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Full filling up of the riverbed. The bankfull discharge is responsible for the formation and dynamics of flow facies and morphological alterations of the watercourse. It is the liquid flow for which the transported sediment discharge is maximal. We thus speak of morphogenetic flow. For many streams the bankfull discharge is a 1 to 3 year
Source
According to AFB

Morphology

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that studies the characteristics, configuration and evolution of forms of grounds and rocks. The main elements that characterize it are: the cross section profile, longitudinal profile, meanderings, river styles, flow velocity, succession of facies, grain size variations, riparian corridor, and the relationship with the alluvial groundwater sheet.
Source
According to AFB

Moving watercourse

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Watercourse having a strongly dynamic bed that can move naturally.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Mud flat

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Range of loose sediments (mud) deposited in an estuary, on a sea shore, or on the sea bed.
Source
according to AFB

Mudslide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dramatic result of erosion (destruction of farmlands, flooding of roads, etc). The main consequences of a mudslide are the degradation of the agricultural potential of the soil and of the quality of rivers caused by increase in turbidity, transfer of
Source
According to SOeS

Municipal information record on major hazards

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Municipal information document on major hazards, prepared by the mayor, with the aim to describe the preventive measures taken by the municipality to reduce the effects of a major hazard for people and goods, to present the rescue organization, and to provide the safety instructions to comply with.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Municipal map

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Simplified urban planning document that a municipality can be provided with if it has no local urbanisation plan (PLU) or a document replacing it; the municipal map determines how the general rules of the national urban planning law can be applied, and is defined in Articles L. 124-1 and the following ones, of the urban planning code. It can affect part or the entire municipality territory. It can also be developed at the level of an inter-municipal structure. Municipal maps must be compatible or made compatible, within three years, with the basic guidelines of a sound water resources management and water quality and quantity objectives, defined by the river basin management plans (SDAGE) as well as with the protection goals defined by the sub-basin management plans (SAGEs).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Mussel bed

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Cylindrical pile, traditionally in oak, planted in a line on the bottom of the foreshore and used for breeding mussels attached to stakes or on wrapped around ropes.
Source
According to Ifremer

Mussel farming

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Farming of filter-feeding molluscs of the family Mytilidae called "mussels", more often marine mussels (by distinction of freshwater mussels).

Source
d'après OIEau