Animal visible to the naked eye (ie larger than 0.5 mm) that does not have a skeleton, bone or cartilage.
Glossaire de A à Z
All the suspended material in water, organic matter or nutrients, such as nitrogen or phosphate. They may occur naturally in water but their concentration increases with human activities (wastewater discharge, agriculture...). In contrast to micropollutants, which are toxic even at low concentration, macropolluants requires higher content to cause bad effects.
Risque lié à un aléa d’origine naturelle dont les effets prévisibles mettent en jeu un grand nombre de personnes, des dommages importants et dépassent les capacités de réaction des instances directement concernées.
Les principaux risques naturels majeurs présents sur le territoire sont les inondations, les avalanches, les feux de forêt, les mouvements de terrain, les tempêtes et les séismes, les éruptions volcaniques (en Martinique et ailleurs dans le monde)...
Événement accidentel se produisant sur un site industriel et entraînant des conséquences immédiates graves pour le personnel, les populations avoisinantes, les biens ou l’environnement. Le risque technologique majeur est un risque de nature industrielle, nucléaire, lié à la radioactivité, aux transports de matières dangereuses (par voie maritime, terrestre ou fluviale), aux exploitations minières et souterraines ou encore lié à la rupture de barrages. Il est engendré par l’activité humaine. Il pèse sur l’environnement considéré dans son acception la plus large (pollution de l’air, environnement du travail, pollution des sols…).
A class of tetrapod, viviparous vertebrate animals, which are essentially characterized by the presence of udders, hairs, a four-cavity heart, a developed nervous and encephalic system, a constant internal temperature and pulmonary-type respiration.
Assembly gathering representatives of local authorities, the managing administration, fishing federations, users, concession owners, owners and scientists responsible for establishing a management plan for migratory fish, in freshwater and seawater. The management committee for migratory fish is in charge, among other things, of giving an opinion on the
Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), it is a six-year management cycle (2010-2015, 2016-2021, 2022-2027, etc) given for achieving environmental objectives. Within a planning rationale, in each basin or group of basins, assessments and a register of protected areas were made in 2004 and programmes for monitoring water status were established late 2006. On this basis,
Planning document established in each district (or basin or group of basins), as required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which sets out environmental objectives to be achieved, particularly with regard to the ecological status and chemical status of surface water bodies as well as the quantitative status and chemical status of groundwater bodies. In France, the river basin management plan (SDAGE) includes the management plan required by the WFD. The SDAGEs were updated in late 2009 to incorporate the requirements of the Water Framework Directive. The…
Movement of an oceanic water body.
Espaces délimités en mer qui répondent à des objectifs de protection de la nature à long terme. Le code de l’environnement reconnaît différentes catégories d’aires marines protégées. La plupart des aires marines protégées permettent de concilier les enjeux de protection et le développement durable d’activités.
Le code de l'environnement (article L334-1 modifié le 24/07/2019), reconnaît différentes catégories d'aires marines protégées qui répondent chacune à des objectifs propres tout en étant complémentaires.
Espaces délimités en mer au sein duquel un objectif de protection de la nature à long terme a été défini, objectif pour lequel un certain nombre de mesures de gestion sont mises en œuvre : suivi scientifique, programme d’actions, chartes de bonne conduite, protection du domaine public maritime, réglementations, surveillance, information du public, etc. Sur la base de cette définition, l’objectif de protection n’est pas exclusif d’autres objectifs, notamment de développement économique maîtrisé (utilisation et exploitation durables des ressources marines).
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Place where vessels can approach the coast and dock to unload their products and/or their passengers. There are natural harbours, but in most cases the port site has been built.
Semantic marker element of computer languages, it serves to define and structure data contained in a document. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces data dictionaries and exchange scenarios that are based on marked formats such as XML.
Low region covered by shallow stagnant water, partly overgrown with vegetation adapted to humidity (reeds, aquatic plants, etc.).
Wetland of a particular type characterized by effective management of water levels and regular maintenance of dikes and channels, essential conditions for these anthropogenic wetlands to retain their wet character and their qualities.
Section between two successive turning points. On the outside of the curve (or extrados) the concave river bank is eroded, steep, and conducive to lateral erosion. On the inside of the curve (or intrados) the convex river bank is sloping gently, suitable for sedimentation of alluvial benches. There are two main types of meanders, incised meanders and free meanders, and an intermediate type, forced cut meanders.
Lagune dont la salinité moyenne annuelle est supérieure à 18 PSU.
Collecting system corresponding to the grouping of a set of points with existing collecting devices. This group may for example correspond to the grouping of collecting devices located on the same territory, to a logical grouping of themes, to an operational goal, etc. Consistency of the meta device comes from common rules applicable to all associated collecting devices.
Data describing a resource (the resource may be, for example, other data). Metadata provide information on the nature of data. Metadata that can be associated with a document are: its title, author, date of creation, etc. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces metadata associated with reference datasets and specification documents. For example, the geographic metadata disseminated by Sandre are based on ISO standard 19115, and document metadata use the Dublin Core.
A type of drought corresponding to a pronounced and prolonged deficit of precipitation.
Fishing carried out by vessels that are absent for more than 96 hours and do not belong to the deep-sea fishery (vessels likely to be absent more than 20 days from their home base).
Mineral active product, mainly metals or metalloids, whose accumulation, even at low concentrations, affects the environment and organisms. The main mineral micro pollutants controlled (from both natural and anthropical occurrence) are cadmium, mercury, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, lead, etc.
Spring water whose composition in mineral elements allows a therapeutic use.
Microbiologically sound natural water from a groundwater table or underground deposit exploited from one or more natural or drilled emergences. It shows a stability of its essential characteristics, in particular composition (mineral content, trace elements, etc.) and temperature at emergence, which is not affected by the flow of the water taken. It is distinguished from other waters intended for human consumption:
- by its nature (characterized by its content of minerals, trace elements or other constituents),
- by its original purity, both characteristics have been preserved intact due to the underground origin of this water which has been kept safe from any risk of pollution. These characteristics must have been assessed geologically and hydrogeologically, physically, chemically, microbiologically and, if necessary, pharmacologically, physiologically and clinically.
According to the circular No. DGS / EA4 / 2008/30 of 31 January 2008 on the safety of mineral waters, mineral water is water with a set of characteristics that are likely to bring its health-promoting properties. It testifies, within the framework of the known natural fluctuations, of a stability of its essential characteristics, in particular of composition and temperature at the emergence, which is not affected by the flow of the water taken.
Minimum annual mean flow calculated for n consecutive days. The VCN3 is used to characterize a situation of severe low water over a short period (3 days). The VCN30 gives information on the minimum resource over a month. Unlike low-flow (QMNA), it is calculated over a period of any 30 consecutive days. Using a sample of values of a
Value of the flow maintained downstream of a localized water intake (short-circuited stream, etc) under Article L-232-5 of the Rural Code. This article specifically refers to "structures to be built in the bed of a watercourse", and "devices" to be developed to maintain a certain flow rate. It requires letting pass a
A system for collecting data from several measuring stations having at least a targeting specific data (i.e. network for hydrometric measurements, piezometric measurement network) and which are carried out measurements or draw samples for later analysis. Each network meets common rules aimed at ensuring the consistency of observations, including the density and purpose of the measuring stations, the selection of compulsory parameters and the choice of measurement protocols, the determining of a periodicity to be complied with. All these rules are described in a protocol.
All provisions (location of monitoring sites, monitored quality elements, controlled parameters or groups of parameters, control frequencies, monitoring methods, etc) related to the monitoring of water status in a basin or group of basins under the Water Framework Directive, in order to establish a coherent and comprehensive picture of the status of these waters. This programme includes: (i) quantitative monitoring of rivers and water bodies; (ii) monitoring of the ecological status, chemical status and
Station located on a hydrographic entity (river, lake, canal, etc), in which measurements or samples are made for physico-chemical, microbiological ... analyses to determine the quality of the aquatic environments in this area. It concerns a space in which it is possible to make measurements at different sites deemed consistent and representative of the station
Average flow rate during a month: it is most often obtained by adding the average daily rates of the month and by dividing the result by the number of days in the month.
Simplified urban planning document that a municipality can be provided with if it has no local urbanisation plan (PLU) or a document replacing it; the municipal map determines how the general rules of the national urban planning law can be applied, and is defined in Articles L. 124-1 and the following ones, of the urban planning code. It can affect part or the entire municipality territory. It can also be developed at the level of an inter-municipal structure. Municipal maps must be compatible or made compatible, within three years, with the basic guidelines of a sound water resources management and water quality and quantity objectives, defined by the river basin management plans (SDAGE) as well as with the protection goals defined by the sub-basin management plans (SAGEs).
Farming of filter-feeding molluscs of the family Mytilidae called "mussels", more often marine mussels (by distinction of freshwater mussels).