Glossaire de A à Z


Label

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Label or brand of a product. At the end of the compliance test, the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) indicates whether a computer system is consistent or inconsistent with its specifications. If it is consistent, Sandre issues a certificate of compliance with a label. The applicant for compliance could use this label under conditions specified by the Sandre.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Lagoon

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

A body of water, generally shallow, which runs along the sea from which it is separated by a narrow strip of land called the "littoral cord", and with which it is generally in communication through narrow passes silted during periods of low water. It is usually fed with fresh water from a watershed of its own. Exchanges with the sea often make its water more or less brackish depending on the season (by "inlets"). Lagoons are frequent on shores of seas without strong tides and with rich sedimentary inputs (for example, the Mediterranean, the Gulf of Guinea, the Gulf of Mexico, etc.).

Source
d'après CGSP

Lagoon-based treatment systems

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Natural purification process, which consists in passing the water through basins, slowly enough to let submersed plants achieving their purification role, before releasing the water in the nature. Indeed, the aquatic vegetation hosts some bacterial communities able to remove pollutants such as nitrates, phosphates...

Source
According to IOWater

Land application of animal manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The spreading of animal excreta on a surface, so as to fertilise it. In animal excreta, cattle effluents are largely dominant and are mainly in the form of manure. Slurry concerns part of the cattle effluent and almost all pig breeding. Poultry droppings, whose fertilising effect is powerful, can locally represent significant tonnages.
Source
according to IFREMER and ADEME

Land application of sewage sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of spreading organic matter-laden wastewater over a surface, to treat it by percolation into the soil while feeding soils poor in organic matter.
Source
according to IFREMER

Land cover

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Here it characterizes, according to the typology of the CORINE Land Cover base of the observation and statistics service (SOeS) of the Ministry for the Environment, the surface of a river basin. This typology distinguishes five major types of land cover in particular: urbanized areas, agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural areas,
Source
According to AFB

Land or seamark

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Designates a remarkable object situated on or near the shoreline and which sailors use to determine their position at sea.
Source
According to Ifremer

Land tenure status

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Status associated with a body of water, determining the owner: maritime public domain, public waterways domain, State-owned property, local government (municipal, departmental, regional, mixed syndicate), public institution, association, group or company, private property or undetermined.

Source
According to AFB

Land Use Plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A planning instrument which sets out the rules for land use in the municipality. The land use plan (POS) defines a zoning of the municipal territory governing all development and construction activities. It especially includes regulations and a zoning plan. The law on urban solidarity and renewal (SRU) of 13 December 2000 replaced the POS by local urbanisation plans (PLUs).

Source
According to Ifremer

Landscape adaptation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Modification of the landscape (relief, vegetation, etc.) of a geographical area to meet certain objectives, such as adaptation to climate change or integration of a building into the landscape.
Source
according to Réseau Ferrés de France (French railway network)

Landscape integration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Landscaping (choice of colours, materials and architecture, planting of trees and flowerbeds for example) to integrate buildings and constructions in their environment.
Source
according to the Ardennes Chamber of Agriculture

Landscape restoration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Restructuring of an artificialised area, possibly a fallow land, in order to make it practicable and attractive for residents while integrating it into the landscape.
Source
according to ONF

Lateral continuity of rivers

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water flow from the ridges down to the valley floor.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Latitude

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Angular distance between a point (location) of the surface of the Earth situated north or south of the equator, which is the reference plane. The latitude varies between the value 0° at the equator and 90° at the poles (or 0 to 100 degrees).
Source

Law

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Written and overall rule passed by Parliament (National Assembly and Senate) according to the legislative procedure. The law may be adopted on the initiative of the parliament (we then speak of a "parliamentary bill") or the government ("government bill").
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Law of 21 April 2004 on WFD transposition

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Law transposing the 2000 Water Framework Directive (WFD), which harmonises European regulations on water management and introduces the obligation to protect and restore the quality of water and aquatic environments in the European Union. Environmental objectives must be set for all aquatic environments (rivers, lakes, coastal waters - coastal and transitional waters - and groundwater) by 2015: achievement of good water status, no deterioration of resources and reduction or elimination of discharges of hazardous substances. The novelty of the concept of "good status" now relies on the proper functioning of aquatic environments taking into account all components of the environment: water, wildlife, flora and habitats.
Source
according to AFB

Law of 30 December 2006 on water and aquatic environments

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Law transposing, in particular, the objectives of the 2000 Water Framework Directive (WFD), which harmonises the European regulation on water management and introduces the obligation to protect and restore the quality of water and aquatic environments in the European Union. Environmental objectives must therefore be set for all aquatic environments (rivers, lakes, coastal waters - coastal and transitional waters - and groundwater) by 2015: achievement of good water status, no deterioration of resources and reduction or elimination of discharges of hazardous substances. The novelty of the concept of "good status" now relies on the proper functioning of aquatic environments taking into account all components of the environments: water, wildlife, flora and habitats. The 2006 Water and Aquatic Environments Act also improves the organisation of public water and sanitation services and modernises the organisation of freshwater fishing. It also contains numerous provisions on the organisation of water resources management - especially the strengthening of local management, the control of non-point source pollution, the recovery of the ecological quality of watercourses, the reinforcement…
Source
according to AFB

Leasing

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Contract whereby the contractor undertakes to manage a public service at his own risks against remuneration paid by the subscribers to the service.
Source
According to AFB

Less stringent objective

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
If unable to achieve "good status" for waters (in accordance with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC) or when, on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis, the measures necessary to achieve the good status of aquatic environments have a disproportionate cost, an objective less stringent than good status can be defined. The difference between this objective and good status must be the smallest possible, focusing only on a limited number of criteria.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Lethal concentration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Concentration of a toxic substance that causes the death of a percentage n in a given population, for a given time and in a given experiment (LCn). We speak of LC0 for the maximum tested concentration applied in a single dose and causing no death in the population of studied organisms during a given time. Finally we talk about LC50 for a concentration applied in a single dose and causing 50% mortality in the population of…
Source
According to BRGM

Lethal dose

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Maximum tested dose causing no mortality in the studied population of organisms during a given time, with single-dose administration (LD0). The dose causing a 50% (or n%) of deaths in the studied population of organisms during a given time, with single-dose administration, is rated LD50 (or LDn).
Source
According to BRGM

Levee

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Earthen dike to contain a watercourse within specified limits.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Lichen

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organism generated by symbiotic association between a mushroom (which brings water and mineral salts) and algae (which creates, by photosynthesis, different organic compounds that it yields in part to the mushroom). Lichens are able to withstand extreme weather conditions and are able to accumulate mineral compounds well beyond their own needs. As a result, they are often used as pollution indicators.
Source
according to IFREMER

Limnology

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that studies lakes and open ponds, including hydrological phenomena, in relation with the environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Liquid flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Volume of water passing through a cross section of a watercourse per time unit. The flow rates of watercourses are expressed in m3/s with at least three significant figures (e.g. 1.92 m3/s, 19.2 m3/s, 192 m3/s) or for small streams in l/s. The national HYDRO database stores measurements of water levels coming from 3,500 measuring stations (including 2,400 that are currently in service) and used to calculate instantaneous, daily and monthly flow rates in a large number of French streams. Liquid flow and sediment discharge are the two main variables of river dynamics.
Source
According to AFB

Listed site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Natural or built-up area in which work that may affect the site requires the advice of the architect of French buildings.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Living communities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All living organisms (animals and plants including microorganisms) that occupy a given ecosystem. This group of living organisms is characterized by a specific composition and by interdependence phenomena. It occupies an area known as biotope and with the latter makes an ecosystem. A biocenosis changes over time (pioneer phase, intermediate phase and equilibrium phase).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Local development plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Established by the Law 2000-1028 of 13 December 2000 on urban solidarity and renewal (SRU), the Local development plan (SCOT) is the tool for designing and implementing inter-municipal planning. It is intended to serve as a frame of reference for various policies including housing, travels, business development, the environment, spatial planning. It ensures their consistency and the consistency of other urban planning documents (PLU, municipal maps, etc). The SCOTs must be compatible or made compatible, within three years, with the basic guidelines for sound water resources management and with the…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Local urbanisation plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Municipal urban planning document, created by the Law on Urban Solidarity and Renewal (SRU) of 13 December 2000 and replacing the land use plan, the local urbanisation plan (PLU) sets out rules for land use. It may also include operational urban planning projects such as the development of existing or new urban districts, public spaces or city entrances, etc. The PLUs must be compatible or made compatible, within three years, with the basic guidelines for sound water resources management and with the water quality and quantity objectives defined by the

Source
According to Ifremer

Local Water Commission

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Commission established by the prefect, responsible for developing collectively, reviewing and monitoring the implementation of the water development and management plan (SAGE). As the true decision-making entity of the SBMP, the Local Water Commission (LWC) organizes all aspects of the process, including the preparation of each step, validation of documents, settling of disputes, as well as monitoring implementation. Once the SBMP has been adopted, the LWC oversees the implementation of the recommendations and stipulations contained in the SBMP, as well as the execution of projects. The LWC is chaired by a local elected official and is made up of three voting groups, whose members are appointed by prefectural decision: local governments, their collective groups and local public entities (at least one-half of the all LWC members); users (farmers, industrial companies, etc.), land owners, professional organizations and the relevant associations (at least one quarter of all LWC members); the State and its public organizations (at most one-quarter of all LWC members).
Source
according to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Lock

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Chamber limited on both sides by side walls and, at the front and rear, by gates which allow passing between two different levels of water.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Lock full

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Volume of water released from a hydraulic structure (opening of a sluice gate, harnessing water stored in a dam reservoir to rotate a turbine, etc), and resulting in sudden and artificial flow variations.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Log jam

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Heterogeneous accumulation of dead wood shaped by the flow, hampering more or less the bed and against which drift wood and other waste can accumulate. Log jams occur at the end of each high water period. Log jams participate in the diversification of flows and

Source
According to AFB

London Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 and entered into force in 1975 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Longitude

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Angular distance between a point (location) of the surface of the Earth and the plane of a meridian chosen as origin (Greenwich prime meridian). It is counted from 0 to 180 degrees to the West and from 0 to 180 degrees to the East.
Source
According to Ifremer

Longitudinal profile

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Profile that characterizes the slope of the watercourse or more generally the thalweg. This slope tends to decrease downstream (concave profile) and different river features are succeeding from upstream to downstream.
Source
According to IGN

Low water flow

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Minimum stream flow calculated in a given time step during low water periods. For a given year, we will talk about: daily low water flow, low water flow on n consecutive days, monthly low flow - average daily flow in a low-flow month (QMNA). With several years of observation, the statistical processing of series of low flows allows calculating a low- flow frequency. For example, the five-year low water flow (or QMNA 5) is a monthly flow that occurs on average once every five years. The QMNA 5 is the reference low water flow for the implementation of the water policy.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and AFB

Low-flow

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Flow, or the lowest water level of the year, as measured by the water level or by the flow. During a period of low water, the river only takes a minor bed.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Low-flow channel

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Part of the bed in which there is always water. It corresponds to the low-flow. Also referred to as "summer bed".

Source
According to AFB

Low-flow level

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Period of lowest water levels in streams and groundwater (usually summer for rainfall regimes).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB
Sens technique

Exceptionally low flow period of a watercourse, or exacerbation of its low water (sometimes assimilated to low seasonal flows). Low water is therefore considered to be a limited period in the year when the flows drop lower than a statistically calculated threshold value, function of each stream.

Source
According to AFB

Low-flow period

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Period when a low water flow is observed.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Low-flow replenishment

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Action to increase a stream flow rate during low water periods using a hydraulic structure (dam reservoir or transfer by gravity or by pumping, etc).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB