Glossaire de A à Z


Ichthyoplankton

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All planktonic organisms consisting of fish eggs and larvae.
Source
According to Ifremer

Identifier

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Specific attribute that uniquely identifies an object in a dataset. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces identifiers in the reference datasets. For example, the

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Impact

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the DPSIR (Driving Forces - Pressures - State - Impacts - Responses) conceptual data model it means the consequences of pressures on the aquatic environment (e.g. increase in phosphorus concentrations, loss of biological diversity, fish death, increased frequency of certain human diseases, modification of some economic variables, etc).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Impact assessment

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Study whose terms, requirements and name, depending of the project importance (impact assessment), are determined by the rules defined in the decrees (under the nature conservation law of 18 July 1976). The impact assessment identifies…
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Impact assessment document

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

According to the regulations and under the Water Act of 1992, a document showing, given the seasonal and climate variations, the impacts of the project on water resources, aquatic environments, flow, water level and quality, including runoff, and each…

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Important Bird Area

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Area which is part of the scientific inventory developed under an international program of Birdlife International to identify the most favorable areas for the conservation of wild birds.

Source
According to french National museum of natural history
Sens technique

Area designated under the 1979 Birds Directive 79/409 / EEC. Areas of importance for the conservation of birds (IBAs) are sites that have been identified as important for certain bird species (breeding areas, seabirds). wintering or migration relay areas) during the scientific inventory program launched by the NGO Birdlife International. They don't have a particular legal status. The most suitable sites for the conservation of the most endangered birds are classified totally or partially in Special Protection Areas (SPAs). The latter, associated with the Special Areas of Conservation constitute the network of Natura 2000 sites.

Source
According to Green and Blue Habitat network ressource center
Sens réglementaire

Areas established pursuant to EEC Directive 79/409 on the protection of birds and their habitats. They have been delineated by the network of French ornithologists on the basis of the criteria proposed in a methodological note. After validation, they are designated to be designated Special Protection Areas (SPAs).

Source
According to Legifrance

Impoundment

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Man-made body of water having a specific purpose: hydropower, replenishment of low-flow levels, irrigation, drinking water supply. Generally these bodies of water are characterized by an irregular depth, a variable level (fluctuation) and a homogeneous water body.

Source
According to AFB

Impoundment dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure built for the storage of water for replenishing low water levels or supplying channels.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Inclusion bias

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Bias induced during an investigation when individuals report the same willingness to pay (WTP) for a particular environmental good (e.g. a section of river) and a broader one (e.g. all the rivers of the catchment area, or all the rivers in the Department). This confusion between geographic scales or between environmental issues (aquatic environments, biological diversity, air quality) is the inclusion bias.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Income effect

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Influence of income on data. For example, the wealthiest people usually have a willingness to pay higher than the poorest.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Index

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Characteristic constant of an ecosystem, obtained by applying a given algorithm to quantitative values specific to some factors of a biotope, a population or an entire community.
Source
According to Ifremer

Indicator species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Species used to characterize the functional ecological status of French streams: trout (brown trout) for salmonid habitats (usually cold mountain freshwaters or close to reliefs), pike for cyprinid habitats (slow lowland streams), and the grayling or white water cyprinids (barbel, dace, etc) for intermediate environments. These species are demanding and found in all natural environments with good status.
Source
According to AFB

Industrial fishing

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fishing activity whose catches are processed into flour (for the breeding of pigs and poultry mainly) but also into oil and other by-products.
Source
According to Ifremer

Industrial pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution directly induced by industrial activity, when it introduces biological, physical (including radiation), chemical or organic allogenic factors, affecting more or less significantly the functioning of ecosystems.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Industrial risk

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Technological risk related to an industrial facility. Industrial risks are either chronic (resulting from the different kinds of pollution likely to have an impact on the health of populations and on the environment, such as emissions of toxic metals, volatile organic compounds or carcinogenic substances), or accidental (attributable to the presence of dangerous products or processes, likely to cause an accident with serious immediate consequences for workers, residents, property and the environment).
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of Champagne-Ardenne

Industrial wastewater

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water that is discharged or produced during industrial production processes and that has no immediate value to these processes. When there are water recycling systems, industrial wastewater corresponds to the volume of water ultimately released by these circuits. To meet the quality standards required for possible discharge into public sewers, it is understood that this water is treated on-site. For the purposes of this questionnaire, cooling waters are not considered as industrial wastewater. Sanitary wastewater and stormwater collected on industrial sites are also excluded from this category.
Source
According to Eurostat

Industrial water

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water used in an industrial plant (process water, cooling water).
Source
According to BRGM

Infiltration

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of water passing through the soil surface. The infiltration phenomenon recharges groundwater and maintains the groundwater flow in permeable hydrogeological formations in the sub-soil. Compared with surface water flow, the groundwater flow can be slow, delayed and long-term (a few hours to several thousands of years).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Infiltration/inflow clear water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Unpolluted water, which is constantly found in public sewer systems. This water is of natural origin (spring catchment, groundwater drainage, ditches, flooding of systems or return/delivery pumping stations, etc), or artificial (fountains, drainage of buildings,
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Inflow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Phenomenon whereby the ocean waters are pushed to the coast, usually because of strong winds, and accumulate in a cove in the shoreline, causing an exceptional rise of sea level.
Source
According to Ifremer

Influenced flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Flow rate of a watercourse disturbed by human activities but in such a manner that flows keep their general characteristics.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Information

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Aggregated data for human use. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces information including in specification documents.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Information system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All resources (organization, interested parties, procedures, computer systems) necessary for the collection, storage, processing and use of information. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) contributes to the development of the Water Information System (WIS).

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Infralittoral zone

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the coastline always covered by the sea. It extends from the intertidal zone to the open sea, until the depth of the water becomes too great to allow the penetration of light.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Space between the lowest tide limit (low water spring tide mark) and the limit compatible with the life of flowering sea plants (sea grasses) and multicellular algae, about a few tens of meters deep. This zone is colonised by organisms that require continuous immersion.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Infrastructure-asset management of public water and sanitation services

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

The ability of a manager of a public water supply and sanitation service to know his technical assets (drinking water production plants, reservoirs, network systems, connections, etc), to plan the best investments, to provide the financial resources needed for the rehabilitation and replacement of structures and respond efficiently to his heritage, is at the core of the analysis of the economic sustainability of water services. Patrimonial management (property management, asset management) is a process whereby a public water utility can direct, control and optimize the supply, maintenance and decommissioning of assets related to infrastructure, including costs for specified performance during their life cycle.

Source
According to AFB, AgroParisTech and ASTEE

Inhaled concentration

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Concentration related to exposure by inhalation in an environment. It is expressed as mass (mg or µg) per unit of air volume (m3).
Source
According to WHO

Inhibitor

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Inorganic or organic water pollutant of sufficient toxicity for inhibiting the development and/or activity of aquatic organisms. The measurement unit is equitox (eq) and kilo equitox (keq or ket).
Source
According to François Ramade (ecologist)

Initial status of the environment

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Status of a site and environments before the implementation of an industrial plant or a development.
Source
According to the Environmental Code

Inland waters

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All stagnant and running waters on the ground and all underground waters, and located upstream of the baseline used for the delimitation of territorial waters.
Source
According to AFB

Inland waterway

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A harnessed river or canal open to traffic and waterways transport.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Inlet

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Opening by which a lagoon communicates with the sea.
Source
according to AFB

INSPIRE Directive

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament aiming to make available geographic information, which is appropriate, harmonized and of good quality, to assist in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of European environmental policy decisions. INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) is a project launched by the European Commission and developed in collaboration with the Member States.
Source
According to BRGM

Instrumental value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value given to biodiversity for its ability to contribute to human well-being.
Source
According to Foundation for Research on Biodiversity

Integrated farming/agriculture

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Agricultural practice that applies to the production that takes into account environmental protection, health and animal welfare. In France, the concept is regulated by public authorities (ministries in charge of agriculture and ecology) and the promotion is made by the FARRE network (forum of integrated farming respectful of the environment). Certification is awarded to farmers who respect the principles of sustainable agriculture.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Integrated management

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Management of some activities that integrates, from the design stage, all the ecological, economic and social factors linked to them. By assessing all its consequences for a given environment, it appears that integrated management contributes to saving time, space and means of production and reducing losses in terms of energy and natural resources.
Source
according to the Commission for Enrichment of the French Language

Integrated River Basin Management

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Management that implies, on a coherent hydrographic unit scale, firstly a consultation and organization of all stakeholders and the coordination of planning and management actions (sectoral policies, programming, etc), and secondly promoting synergy between the good functioning of aquatic ecosystems and the meeting of uses. Integrated management aims to optimize actions to achieve balanced management.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Inter-ministerial Mission for Water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

According to the decree of 27 February 1987, this mission is entrusted to the Minister for the Environment and is composed of representatives of ministries responsible for water issues. The Inter-ministerial Mission for Water (MIE) reviews equipment programmes, the allocation of resources and means and especially the appropriations allotted to the budget of the various ministries involved. It also reviews all draft laws, decrees, regulations,

Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Inter-municipal cooperation public body

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Grouping of municipalities for the purpose of implementing joint development projects within a solidarity area. These groupings are subject to common rules that are homogeneous and comparable to those of local authorities. Urban communities, agglomeration syndicate, agglomerations communities, new agglomeration syndicate, municipal syndicate and mixed syndicates are public institutions for inter-municipal cooperation.
Source
according to the Ministry of Local Government

Inter-service Mission for Water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Coordinating body to increase the consistency of State actions under the authority of the prefects. The Inter-service Mission for Water (MISE) gathers the directors of major deconcentrated services and local public institutions [in particular: DREAL(regional directorate for the environment), DDTM (departmental directorate for lands and seas), DDCSPP (departmental directorate for social cohesion and protection of populations), Gendarmerie, ONEMA (national agency for water and aquatic environments), water agencies, ONCFS (national agency for hunting and wild life), Prefecture, DIRM (inter-regional…

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Intercalibration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Méthode visant à vérifier que les limites du bon état des milieux aquatiques sont comparables entre les différents États membres de l'Union européenne. L'intercalibration passe par la mise en commun et la comparaison des données scientifiques, puis l'harmonisation des seuils pour chaque élément de qualité.

Source
d'après Pôle relais Lagunes méditerranéennes

Interchange scenario

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Set of technical specifications that enable dialogue between people and computer systems. An interchange scenario established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) is a specification document that describes how to exchange data in a specific context. It is used to exchange data based on a format. This document details: semantics, mandatory and optional character, syntax, the exchanged data and the technical and organizational arrangements for the exchange. An interchange scenario is based on one or more data dictionaries and is materialized by files in XSD and PDF formats.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Intermediate marsh

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Marshes partially protected from flooding.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Intermittent watercourse

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Watercourse dried out part of the year.

Source
according to IRSTEA

Internalization

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Integration of external costs in economic flows. For example, the polluter-pays principle is a means to internalize external costs generated by the polluter and incurred by the other water users and the environment.
Source
According to CIRED and AFB

International waters

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Maritime space not belonging to a particular State. As such, it is not subject to any national jurisdiction and belongs to the international community. International waters account for two-thirds of the Earth's oceanic surface.
Source
according to IFREMER

Interoperability

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Capacity of a computer system, whose interfaces are fully known, to work with other existing or future computer systems and with unrestricted access or implementation. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) produces technical specifications and disseminates reference datasets that guarantee interoperability between water-related computer systems.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Intrinsic value

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A non-instrumental value which reflects the inherent value of an entity and which can be anthropocentric. The intrinsic value may also reflect the value that an entity has in itself and for its own sake, regardless of its usefulness to human beings. It then reflects a conception of biodiversity as an "end in itself", and gives man a moral responsibility to protect nature.
Source
According to Foundation for Research on Biodiversity

Invasive alien specy

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Exotic species whose introduction by humans, voluntary or fortuitous, on a territory threatens ecosystems, natural habitats or native species with negative ecological, economic and health consequences.

Source
According to french Ministry of Ecological and Solidarity Transition
Sens technique

Species, subspecies or lower rank taxon, introduced outside its natural range, past or present. Introduction or spread threatens biodiversity. The definition includes all parts, seeds, eggs or propagules of species of this type that could survive and reproduce.

Source
According to french national museum of natural history
Sens réglementaire

According to the European regulation n ° 1143/2014, "an exotic species whose introduction or propagation proves to constitute a threat for the biodiversity and the associated ecosystem services, or to have harmful effects on the biodiversity and the said services".

Source
According to European Parliament and Council

Invasive species

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A species that is indigenous or non-native to a given territory, proliferates and extends its range due to an increase in population density.

Source
according to MNHN

Invert

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a shallow stream with fast flow whose surface is heterogeneous and "broken" above gravel/pebbles or gravel substrates.
Source
According to AFB

Investigative monitoring

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Control, as part of the water status monitoring programme, designed to look for the pressure which causes an observed degradation. It is carried out when the reasons for any significant alteration of the environment are unknown, to determine the causes for a water body not meeting the environmental objectives (when operational control has not yet been established), or for monitoring

Source
According to AFB

Investigator bias

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Bias induced during an investigation when the respondent gives a higher value to his willingness to pay to please the investigator.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Iron removal

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action to remove iron or its derivatives from a liquid.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Irrigation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Spreading water on crops to promote and accelerate growth. Irrigation relies on the use of water pumped from the soil or from a watercourse, or even from bodies of water created for this purpose.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Irrigation equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Agricultural equipment used to provide water (and possibly other substances) to cultivated plants.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Irrigation water

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water that is applied on the soil in order to increase its water content and provide for normal plant growth.
Source
According to Eurostat

ISO 9001 standard

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Standard that describes the organizational requirements for a quality management system. Products of the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) have to comply with the ISO 9001 requirements.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Isotope

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
Chemical element with the same atomic number (same number of protons) but different atomic masses (different number of neutrons). Isotopes can be stable or radioactive. The ratio between the amounts of the stable isotope and the radioactive isotope in water can be used to date the latter (example of C14 for the best known). Mass differences between isotopes can, for their part, explain the origin of a water sample: e.g. the content of rainwater in O18 with respect to O15 decreases with altitude.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB