Glossaire de A à Z


Facies

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Morphodynamic unit of a stream having longitudinal homogeneity in the slope of the water surface and in the distribution of water levels, in the velocities of the flow and in the particle size of the substrate. The length of a facies can vary from one to several times the width of the wet bed. For example, we can mention three major types of contrasted facies: wet (relatively low slope, high water levels, low velocities); fast (high slope, high flow velocities, substrate mainly composed of large blocks ); and flat (average slope, average and uniform velocities, water level rather low, symmetrical and regular cross profile, medium and homogeneous particle size).
Source
According to Cemagref

Facility

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Technical unit where one or several activities or processes are carried out.
Source
According to BRGM

Falling tide

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the tidal cycle between high tide and the next low tide, opposite to rising tide. Also referred to as "ebb" or "ebb tide."
Source
According to the International Hydrographic Organization

Fallow

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Temporary or permanent unuse of part of cultivated areas.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Farm

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Place where an agricultural activity occurs (livestock or crops).

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

Economic and production unit that simultaneously meets three conditions: the unit has an agricultural activity, reaches or exceeds a certain dimension (surface area, number of animals, production...) and is under day-to-day and independent management.

Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture
Sens réglementaire

According to European Regulation (EU) 2018/1091 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 concerning integrated statistics on agricultural holdings, an agricultural holding is an individual unit, from a technical and economic point of view, which has a management and carrying out economic activities in the field of agriculture, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1893/2006, falling within groups A.01.1, A.01.2, A.01.3, A.01.4, A.01.5 or the "maintenance of agricultural land under good agricultural and environmental conditions" of group A.01.6 on the economic territory of the Union, as a primary or secondary activity. For activities in class A.01.49, only the following activities are included: "breeding of semi-domestic animals or other live animals" (except for the breeding of insects) and "beekeeping and production of honey and beeswax."

Source
according to the European Parliament

Fauna

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

All animal species that make a population or zoocoenosis. Also designates all animals specific to a region or to a given geological era.

Source
According to Ifremer

Fauna and flora habitats directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and  fauna and flora, known DHFF Directive. It aims to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of natural habitats - terrestrial or aquatic - and wild species of plants and animals of community interest. It obliges membres of  states designate

Source
According to the Ministry for the environment and AFB

Faunal list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Enumeration of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Fee

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Payment, made in exchange for an operation right, or for the right to use a service. The French Water Agencies collect fees from all users of water in response to the impact of their activities on aquatic environments. These charges, based on the "polluter pays" principle is also a financial resource dedicated to the preservation of water resources and aquatic environments. The fee rate calculation is performed annually by the River Basin committee, under control of the law.

Source
according to Rhône-Méditerranée & Corse Water Agency

Fertilisation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Input of matters (fertiliser) to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
All techniques concerning the input of matters intended to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil. One usually distinguishes soil additives, basic and organic minerals, which affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, from fertilisers, which are used to improve the nutrition of crops and contain major (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), secondary (sulphur, magnesium, calcium and sodium) and minor nutrients (micro or trace elements).
Source
according to Encyclopaedia universalis

Filtration plant

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All equipment for treating and cleaning polluted water.
Source
According to Kristian Benoit (naturalist)

Fish

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Aquatic vertebrate that breathes through gills and has both limbs represented by fins (pectoral and pelvic). Fish are usually oviparous.

Source
according to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Fish classification of watercourses

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Legal classification of a watercourse based on the dominant species and worthy of protection. In principle, the river is classified in the first category when the dominant group consists of salmonids (salmon, trout) and in the second category, when the dominant group is composed of cyprinids (carp, barbel, roach, etc.). This classification determines the fishing practices.
Source
According to AFB

Fish population

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Group of multispecies fish.
Source
According to AFB

Fish species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

All fish living in a geographical area or a specific habitat.

Source
According to Ifremer

Fish stocking

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Action to introduce or reintroduce farmed species, mostly in fresh waters, in order to enrich the fish stocks for recreational or professional fishing or to protect threatened species.

Source
according to Wikipédia

Fishery

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Designates a fraction, one or more stocks in interaction with one or more fleets practicing one or more fishing activities.
Source
According to Ifremer

Fishing effort

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measurements of all capture means used on a stock, for a determined time interval. The calculation of the fishing effort is as follows: surface of the net laying (expressed in m²) x fishing time (in hours).
Source
According to AFB

Fishing effort unit

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fishing operation or set of operations of a fishing vessel for a given time (hours of trawling, number of trap/pot hauls per day, etc).
Source
According to Ifremer

Fishing mortality

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Instantaneous rate of disappearance of individuals due to fishing.
Source
According to Ifremer

Fishing operation

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All sampling actions in an aquatic environment, which are conducted on a measuring station and at a given moment, in order to know and follow the fish populations.

Source
d'après AFB

Fishing season

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Fishing operation (with netting) whose duration depends on the human resources and equipment used and on the surface and depth of the body of water. On-site measurements are performed to know the environmental conditions and to better estimate the fishing results. The fishing season includes all concepts and information considered stable during a sample campaign: one or more consecutive nights or days depending on the protocols, the size, depth and diversity of habitats in the body of water. It allows specifying the following pieces of information: the fishing protocol used (currently there are only two published protocols and therefore usable: (i) the vertical fishing nets used since the 1990s, (ii) the multi-mesh nets described in the prEN 14757 /2003

Source
According to AFB

Fishing status

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Status associated with water of a body of water, determining the rules to which the body of water is subjected to for its use: open or impounded water.
Source
According to AFB

Fishway

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Device located on a natural or artificial barrier (dam) that allows migratory fish to pass these barriers to access their spawning or feeding grounds. We distinguish devices for upstream spawning runs from those for downstream migration. Other crossing equipments are sometimes assimilated to fishways, e.g.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Fixed capital

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
All material means for production that are not destroyed during the production process. Their lifespan exceeds one year.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Fixed capital consumption

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Depreciation of fixed assets incurred during the given period as a result of normal wear and tear and foreseeable disuse. Note: obsolescence is the loss in value caused by a reduction in the level of desirability and usefulness of goods due to their outmode design and construction.
Source
According to Treasury Board of Canada

Fixed cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of the cost of production that does not vary with the quantity produced. The importance of fixed costs in the total cost of production depends on the structure of the production activity. For instance, fixed costs are paramount in network industries. In public water and sanitation utilities, fixed costs can represent up to 80% of the total costs.
Source
According to AFB

Fjord

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of an ancient glacial valley invaded by the sea.
Source
according to IFREMER

Flood

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Phenomenon characterized by a more or less abrupt rise in the level of a watercourse, related to a flow growth. Flood is not always an overflow of the riverbed. Floods are also characterized by their return period: the five-year flood (frequency one year out of 5 - Return period 5), the ten-year flood (frequency one year out of 10 - Return period 10), the hundred-year flood (frequency, one year out of 100 - return period 100). Seasonal floods are natural phenomena. They are essential to maintaining the diversity of water systems and services provided by nature.
Source
According to AFB

Flood control

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of limiting a peak flow, either by storage in a specific reservoir, or by expanding the flood plain.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
For a given year: it is either the highest flash flood flow rate (QIX) or the highest daily flow rate (QJX). For several years, by using a sample including the highest number possible of annual flood flows, it is the value associated with different theoretical return periods (2, 5, 10 and 50 years in Hydro), determined by a statistic study. A confidence interval is calculated based on the number of available years, their homogeneity, the…
Source
According to SCHAPI

Flood forecasting

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Analysis aiming to determine the expected flood characteristics: flow, level, time of onset and duration of these floods at different sites in the drainage basin. Modelling is used for this purpose. The forecasts are based on series of statistical analyses of historical floods and on the knowledge of flood storage areas.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Flood forecasting service

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Service in charge of predicting hazardous situations caused by heavy floods, in partnership with Météo-France. The flood forecasting Service (SPC) warns the Prefect in case of alarm and prepares the information to be disseminated to the mayors. The Civil Protection Service of the prefecture is in turn responsible for alerting the mayors by suitable means and providing them with the information developed by the
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood marker

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A mark showing the historical floods of a river. Witness to the great past floods, flood markers allow to keep the memory of floods that time or trauma can sometimes erase. They come in different shapes (line or mark on stone, metal plate or sealed flat button, etc) and are found on different types of buildings (public or private buildings, wharves, piers of bridge, etc).
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood return period

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Long-term average interval of time or number of years within which a flood of a given height will be equalled or exceeded, e.g. a flood with a 10-year return period has every year 1 out of 10 chances to occur (called 10-year flood). This is then called the flood reference 0.1.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood storage area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Natural or man-made space over which water is spreading when rivers overflow in their floodplain. The temporary storage of water reduces the overflow by increasing its flow time. This storage is part of the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Generally speaking, a flood storage area is meant for little or non-urbanized and little developed areas.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Flood travel

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Travel of rising water levels from upstream to downstream of a watercourse.
Source
according to IRSTEA

Flood warning

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Warning issued in advance by a special public service (flood forecasting service: SPC). In case of rainfall or hydrological warning (triggered when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service proposes to the Prefect to send alerts to the Mayors of the affected basins. When a flood with serious overflow is developing, the
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Flood-prone areas plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Document that establishes a public easement affecting land use. It allows the administration to oppose any action or work likely to impede the free flow of water or the conservation or floodplains.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Flood-storage area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Area where overflows can spread in the floodplain and which plays a significant role in flood control. Mapping these flood-storage areas allows better land use management in the valleys.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Floodplain

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Maximum bed occupied by a stream in which water flows only temporarily when the minor bed overflows during very high-flow periods (especially in the largest historical flood). Its outer limits are determined by the largest historical flood. The floodplain of the river allows the storage of overflowing waters. There is also a mosaic of habitats for many species. These habitats are also called "water dependent habitats"

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Flora

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant species growing in a given geographical area or environment.
Source
according to ADEME

Floristic list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Abundance of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Flotation of sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sludge separation process based on differences in hydrophobicity of the surfaces of the particles to be separated. E.g. Flotation of sludge is used in mineralurgy to separate minerals from each other and in the treatment of wastewater to remove fats.
Source
according to ADEME

Flow

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Makes a fluid move along a preferential route.
Source
According to Ifremer

Flow rate or flow or discharge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Volume of water passing through a cross section of a watercourse per time unit. The flow rates of watercourses are expressed in m3/s with at least three significant figures (e.g. 1.92 m3/s, 19.2 m3/s, 192 m3/s) or, for small streams in l/s. The accuracy of a flow result depends on many factors: type of method used, careful measures, rigorous counting, influence of the ground. In hydrology, the term "flow rate or flow" is found in many expressions having a descriptive character: low water flow, fluid flow, morphogenetic flow, solid discharge rate or

Source

Flow regime

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Way in which the fluid particles move together during a flow.
Source
according to the National Higher School of Hydrology

Fluvial dynamics

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of potamology (branch of hydrology that deals with rivers and their regime) which deals with the flow in watercourses and the impact on the bed material of the forces that it brings into play.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Food web

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
All connected food chains within an ecosystem. A food web refers to all the trophic relationships existing within a biocenosis between the various ecological categories of living beings constituting the latter (producers, consumers, decomposers). Food webs are affected by global changes, especially those related to climate change.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Foreshore

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the shoreline exposed at low tide and covered at high tide.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Fossorial

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Describes a marine organism that lives and moves in the sediment, either for protection or for finding food.
Source
According to Ifremer

French Association for Standardization (AFNOR)

Updated on 09/08/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Association governed by the law of 1901, recognized by public utility, composed of nearly 2,500 member companies. Its mission is to lead and coordinate the standards development process and promote their application. AFNOR is the central core of the French standardization system.

Source
According to Organisation internationale de normalisation

frequency

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
For a low-water flow lower or equal to a given value "a", the ratio between the number of observations made in a series of flows (usually monthly), where the flow remains below this value "a", and the total number of observations in this series (FEtiage = number of observations with Q ? a / total number of observations). For a flood flow rate greater than or equal to a given value "b", the frequency is the ratio between the number of observations made in a series of flows (usually monthly), where the flow exceeds this value "b", and the total number of observations in this series (FCrue = number of observations with Q ? b / total number of observations). These two limit values "a" and "b" are not identical. For the frequency to be reliable, the series must have at least 30 observations.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Fresh water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water whose low salt content makes it suitable for abstraction for various uses, especially for irrigation and human consumption. The limits of salt content between fresh, brackish and salt water are not rigorously set and may vary according to legislations. However, marine waters have a salt content generally ranging from 10 to 38 g/l depending on inflows of freshwater from rivers, but sometimes have much higher contents, such as the Dead Sea (up to 260 g/l).
Source
According to UNESCO

Freshening

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Reduction of the salinity of sea water resulting either from a mixture of sea water with inland water or from rain.
Source
According to Ifremer

Freshwater Fish Directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Directive 78/659/EEC of the Council of 18 July 1978 concerns the quality of fresh waters needing protection or improvement in order to sustain fish populations. It concerns the quality of fresh waters and applies to those waters designated by the Member States as needing protection or improvement in order to sustain fish life; it does not apply to water used for intensive fish farming. Member States shall determine the values of the parameters applicable either to salmonid or cyprinid areas. This directive was transcribed into French law by Decree of 12/19/1991, which also transcribes other directives (bathing waters, shellfish waters, etc.). Directive 2006/44/EC of the Council of 6 September 2006 now in force replaced the 78/659/EEC, without changing fundamental provisions. Finally, Article 22 of the Water…
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB, Ineris, website Europa.eu

Fungicide

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pesticide used to control, repel or destroy fungi.
Source
according to Lenntech