Glossaire de A à Z


Daily exposure dose

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
(Internal or external) dose of substance received by the organism related to the weight of the individual and the number of exposure days (in the case of a non-carcinogenic substance) and to the number of days in a lifetime (in the case of a carcinogenic substance).
Source
According to BRGM

Daily mean flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio between the volume of the flow for a full day (0-24 hours) and the corresponding duration. This volume is calculated by using the record of instantaneous flow rates. If the flow is expressed in m3/s, the volume is calculated in m3 and the duration in sec.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Daily rainfall

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A 24-hour cumulative precipitation height at a given location.
Source
according to METEO FRANCE

Dam

Updated on 16/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Structure that crosses more than the low-water channel of a permanent or intermittent watercourse or a thalweg. We can also say that it bars up a river cachtment area. But a dam can be outside a watercourse. The reservoir it makes upstream is gravity fed by the river basin waters. The body of a dam can be made of earth, masonry, concrete, wood, metal, etc. There are several types of dams, according to their function: hydropower dam, reservoir dam, dam for pollution control, dam for navigation.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Dam draining

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation consisting in draining a dam reservoir for various reasons (maintenance, visit of the structure, regulation, etc.). Given its impacts on aquatic environments, it has to be authorised by a prefect’s order and preceded by an impact assessment study.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Damage

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Harm or injury to someone or material damage to something.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Dangerous substance

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substance, or considered, at an equivalent level, as questionable.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Data

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Elementary digital information, usually formatted in a special way and existing in various forms: numbers, texts on a sheet of paper, bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, photos, topographic, geological, aeronautical, marine, forestry, agricultural maps, etc.), satellite imagery.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Data bank

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A set of elementary data coming from one or more collecting devices organized by computer processing. It can extract data and make them available to users. The elementary data collecting devices may be located in several data banks. In some cases the data bank may contain processed data.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Data Catalogue

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Record that indexes data through their metadata. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) provides metadata of geo-referenced datasets via an online service, known as the data catalogue hosted on GeoNetwork (http: / / www.sandre.eaufrance.fr / geonetwork).

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Data collection

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Process related to the transmission of data generated by different stakeholders and means to a storage device. Most often data collecting is made by the producer himself, who makes the data selection, formatting and transmission. Sometimes an intermediary collects data from one or more producers

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Data Dictionary

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Collection of words or phrases in one language presented in an agreed order and intended to provide information. Data dictionaries established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) are specification documents that describe and clarify the terminology and data for a particular field. They include entities (or objects) connected logically with others (the "Station" object is for example connected to the "sample point" object). They are used to design databases in particular. Several aspects of the data are processed: their meaning, essential rules for their drafting or codification, the list of values they can have, the person or persons or organizations who have the right to create, consult, modify or delete them, etc. A data dictionary is based on one or more sets of reference data and materialized by files in XSD and PDF formats.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Data producer

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Entity responsible for the creation of data up to their validation. The data producer is in charge of controlling data and may also be responsible for their availability. It may appeal to third parties for the production of data but this must remain transparent and under its responsibility. Insofar as the producer "signs" the data, the mention of the producer's name must be associated with the data in any data exchange.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Database

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A structured set of files gathering information having common features and accessible by software. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) only manages databases made up of specification documents and reference datasets

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Database on thematic mapping of the Water Agencies

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

A set of geographic layers presenting hydrographic objects for the French territory. This includes cutting the territory into "hydrographic areas" (river basins) as well as watercourses and bodies of water, and the codification of these objects. The Carthage database (Database on thematic mapping of the Water Agencies) was developed by IGN, the Water Agencies and the Ministry for the Environment and is based on the hydrographic layer of the CARTO database. The National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) disseminates this geo-referenced dataset through its data catalogue and cartographic Atlas.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Dataset

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Homogeneous set of data in a structured file. A dataset in "Sandre format" is a file of data on professions/jobs according to an interchange scenario prepared by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre). It is materialized through a file in an XML or text format.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Deadwood

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Material gathering isolated trunks, branches, entire trees or accumulations of plant debris of heterogeneous sizes. Deadwood is a key element for changing channel forms and therefore diversifying environments. It also plays an important role as medium and substrate for vegetation and microfauna, but it can create jams after a flood. It serves as a shelter for the green lizard, the fragile slow worm, the common toad and the midwife toad. Sometimes hanging in the trees after several seasons, it can also serve as shelters for carnivores like the stone marten or the genet.
Source
According to AFB

Decarbonatation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Removal of some calcium and magnesium from water to achieve a compromise between the proper mineral balance of water and the optimum level of hardness.
Source
according to IFREMER and the General Council of Seine-et-Marn

Declaration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Police procedure demanding to individuals wishing to set up installations, structures, work and activities that have an impact on water and aquatic environments, to declare them above a certain level (limits of water withdrawals, discharges, size of
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Decree

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Regulatory act signed either by the President of the Republic or by the Prime Minister. The decrees called "State Council decrees" can only be taken after collaboration with the Council of State. The decree is a statutory text issued by the executive power and intended to clarify the special terms and conditions for the application of a law passed by the parliament. It is most often complemented by implementation decrees.

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Deep Sea Fishing

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fishing activity carried out beyond a 400 m depth.
Source
According to CIEM

Deep seepage

Updated on 16/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Passage abnormally used or created by water in a dike, a dam.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Deep water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Term used to describe areas that are not naturally (shellfish farms) or artificially (ports) exposed at low tide.
Source
According to Ifremer

Definition

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Explanation of the meanings of a word or phrase of a lexicon. Data dictionaries established by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre) include a set of definitions.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Defluorination

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Removal of the surplus of fluorine from water, to reach a concentration that does not expose anyone to dental or bone health risks.
Source
according to the Belgian Development Agency

Delta

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A type of river mouth characterised by heavy siltation at an elevation very close to that of the water surface and forming a natural marshy plain.
Source
according to IFREMER

Demand

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Balance made on a given basin or sub-basin for a specific period between, on the one hand, the available resources, owing to foreseeable water inputs or income over the same area for the time period taking into account the necessary functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and, on the other, the water demands, i.e. the volumes or water
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Demand function

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Function that links the optimal choice (the requested amounts) to the different price values and income. Therefore the demand function for a good depends on the price of all goods and the income of the consumer.
Source
According to Hal Ronald Varian (economist)

Demesnial water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a river owned and maintained by a national governmental body. This maintenance can be delegated to the regions or departments.
Source
according to French private forestry

Demineralisation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to remove minerals and salts from water to produce demineralised water.
Source
according to Lenntech

Denitrification

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Nitrate (NO3-) reduction to nitrogen gas (N2) by bacteria in anoxic conditions. An anoxic medium has no dissolved oxygen. This phenomenon is different from the consumption of nitrates by plants.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Departmental Health Regulations

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Hygiene and safety regulations adopted by the prefect. The Departmental Health Regulations supplement the rules of the Code of Public health and specify how they are applied locally. There is a departmental health regulations model (= reference).
Source
According to Ifremer

Departmental quality objectives map

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Map of rivers in a Department (administrative division) showing with colours (yellow, green, blue) the different levels of quality objectives to be achieved. The reference values of different parameters constituting these objectives are provided in a list appended to the card. These objectives are usually subject to a prefectural order established after dialogue.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Departmental quarry plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Document that defines the general terms for establishing quarries in the Departments. Established by the Law of 4 January 1993, it is drafted by the Departmental Quarry Commission and approved by prefectural order. The Departmental quarry plan (SDC) takes into account "the national economic interest, the resources and requirements of the Department and neighbouring Departments regarding equipment, the protection of…

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Departmental record of major hazards

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Document prepared by the prefect at departmental level recording essential information on major natural and technological hazards in the Department, in accordance with Article R125-11 of the Environmental Code. The information, given to citizens on the major hazards which they face, includes a description of the risks and their likely consequences for people, property and the environment, as well as the presentation of safeguard measures planned to minimize their effects.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Depollution

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Operation consisting in partly or entirely treating a polluted environment (soil, water, air) by eliminating or greatly reducing the polluting load in order to restore its functions and remediate it for use.
Source
According to BRGM

Depth of runoff

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Amount of water measured on a level surface and expressed as height.

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

A flow rate value expressed in mm. The depth of runoff is obtained by dividing a runoff volume at a measuring station by the surface of the drainage basin at the station; it is most commonly expressed in mm, which allows comparing it to the rainfalls which cause it.

Source
according to SCHAPI

Desalination water

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Total volume of water produced by desalination.
Source
According to Eurostat

Desertification

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Decrease or disappearance of land due to soil erosion by wind or water.
Source
according to ADEME

desilting

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action by which a place is freed from the silt that fills it up (channel, port, etc) to restore its depth.
Source
According to Ifremer

Detection limit

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Smallest value of a parameter to be analyzed in a sample that can be detected and considered different from the blank value (with a given probability), but not necessarily quantifiable. Two risks are taken into account: the alpha risk of considering this parameter present in the sample whereas its quantity is zero, the beta risk of considering a parameter as absent when its quantity is not zero.
Source
According to AFB

Determining species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Qualifies endangered, vulnerable, rare or remarkable species that meet the rankings established by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) or extracted from red books published nationally or regionally, but also nationally or regionally protected species, or subject to European or international regulations when they are of a real interest to national or regional heritage, as well as species that do not benefit from the protected status or are not included in red lists, but under specific ecological or biogeographical conditions, at a limit of an area or whose
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Detoxification

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Elimination of toxins by an organism. This process is best known and applied for shellfish that have accumulated substances that are toxic to human beings (heavy metals, toxic phytoplankton, etc), which are put to "breathe" in water devoid of
Source
According to Ifremer

Developmental toxicity

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Harmful effects on the individual in his growth stage which can result from exposure of one of both parents prior to conception, exposure during prenatal or postnatal growing stage up to sexual maturation.
Source
According to BRGM

Diadromous

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Describes a species having part of its biological cycle at sea and another part in a river
Source
According to AFB

Diadromous migratory fish

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Species having part of their biological cycle in freshwater and the other part in saltwater.

Source
according to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Diatom

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Microscopic brown algae with a siliceous skeleton.
Source
According to AFB

Diatom Biotic Index

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Index for assessing the biological quality of the water of a river through an analysis of benthic diatom flora.
Source

Digested sludg

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Also called anaerobic sludge, it results from a biological stabilisation process, reducing the amount of organic matter in the waste, through anaerobic digestion (absence of oxygen) in a digester.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Dike

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Structure in concrete, earth or rock, or a mere (compacted or not) earthen dike or levee for: channelling a stream and possibly protect its surroundings (floodplain) against flooding, and/or protect a defined objective, more or less specific (urban, industrial, agricultural) and sometimes surround it, and/or serve as a barrier for a water abstraction in the stream.

Source
According to Marcel Roche (hydrologist)

Dilution

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Phenomenon whereby a fluid is dispersed in another fluid having a much larger volume. We speak, for example, about the dilution of polluted effluent.
Source
According to François Ramade (ecologist)

Direct management

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Direct management (operation) of a public utility/service by the municipality or the public inter-municipal cooperation institution which is in charge of this utility/service.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Directive

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Legal act addressed to the Member States which sets targets without prescribing the means by which these objectives are to be achieved. Recipient States have an obligation as to the result but are left free as to what means are to be used to achieve it. At the initiative of the Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Communities may penalize States that do not meet their obligations.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Directive on the reuse of public sector information

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Directive 2003/98/EC of the European Parliament on the reuse of public sector information requiring that all public data, legally or de facto available, can be reused, including for commercial use.
Source
According to AFB

Discharge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to throw, spill or allow one or any substance entering into surface water, groundwater or sea water. Discharges can be industrial, domestic (urban community, etc), agricultural (farming, etc). They can be point or non-point.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Discharge authorisation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Administrative act decided by the community, owner of a sanitation facility, to authorise an exceptional water discharge. This authorisation is mandatory for any connection of an industrial effluent to a community sewerage network. It obligatorily sets the characteristics of the effluents to be complied with, the duration of the authorisation and the monitoring methods to be used.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Discharge into a river

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discharge of effluents or pollutants into watercourses.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Discharge into a sewer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to dispose of, discharge or allow the flow of runoff water (mainly from rainfall) and wastewater (produced by human activities) into the sewers of a city.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and City of Paris

Discharge standard

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value constituting a legal reference that cannot be exceeded during a discharge into to the environment.
Source
according to Downstream Seine Interdepartmental Water Syndicate

Discharged pollution

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Difference between the pollution produced and the pollution eliminated. Also referred to as "net pollution."
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Discharged water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Amount of water (in m3) or of substances (in kg of BOD/day or comparable) added/leached into a river from a point or non-point source.
Source
According to Eurostat

Discrete goods

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Goods that are naturally expressed in discrete units (whole units). For example, we define the demand for automobiles by the actual number of vehicles required and not in terms of time of use of a vehicle (continuous value).
Source
According to Hal Ronald Varian (economist)

Disinfection

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Destruction by chemical or physical processes of infectious germs which are outside the body, on the body surface. By extension, we speak of disinfection of water during the production of drinking water, i.e. the physico-chemical elimination of germs found in wastewater or
Source
According to Ifremer

Dispersed pollution

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution coming from several or many point sites. The dispersed pollution is all the more detrimental as the number of sites involved is high.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Disposal at sea

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discharge of effluents or pollutants into the sea.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Disproportionate cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Refers to costs that justify derogation from the obligations imposed by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC. The disproportionate costs are legitimized by the impact of the cost of work on water prices and economic activity, as compared to the economic value of environmental benefits and other expected advantages. The disproportion is considered on a case by case basis using criteria such as: the financial resources available in the
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Dissolved organic matter

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dissolved organic molecule coming either from the degradation of dead organisms or from the excreta of living organisms (plankton).
Source
According to Ifremer

Diversity index

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Coefficient reflecting the degree of diversity of a community. The expression of the diversity index is based on two parameters: the number of species and number of individuals per species. There are many indexes but the most commonly used is that of Shannon and Weaver (1949). It expresses the relative importance of the number of abundant species in a given environment. Thus, the greater the proportion of rare species and that of abundant species smaller, the greater the diversity
Source
According to Ifremer

Document of objectives

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Reference document, guidance and decision support for each Natura 2000 site based on a consensus-building process, the document of objectives (DOCOB) sets the appropriate management measures to be implemented to preserve or restore the species and habitats that have justified the site designation under Natura 2000.

Source
According to Syndicat Mixte du bassin versant de la Nive

Domestic use of water

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water abstraction and discharge exclusively intended for meeting the needs of individuals, owners or tenants of facilities, and of the persons ordinarily living in the same household, within the limits of the water quantities needed for human consumption, hygiene care, washing and the growing of plants and breeding of animals reserved for family consumption. Any abstraction lower than or equal to 40 m3/d is considered as a domestic use of water.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Domestic wastewater

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Wastewater from residential settlements and services which come mainly from human activities and domestic uses.
Source
According to Eurostat

Domestic water

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water used by human beings for their domestic needs (kitchen, toilets, bathrooms, etc).
Source
According to BRGM

Domestic/indoor pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution resulting from wastewater discharged from households (showers, toilets, kitchen, etc.).
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Downstream

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a watercourse which, with respect to a given point, is located after this latter point in the direction of the water flow.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Downstream migration

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action for migratory fish to go down a stream to return to their breeding or growing place.
Source
According to Rhone-Alps Regional Council

Drainage

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Natural or artificial removal, by gravity or by pumping, of surface water or groundwater.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Drainage design rainfall

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Artificial rain event, representative of the local rainfall and to which it is possible to associate recurrence intervals.
Source
according to the National Higher School of electrical engineering, electronics, computer science, hydraulics and telecommunication

Drainage equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Equipment used to accelerate the natural or artificial evacuation, by gravity or by pumping, of surface or ground water.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation and IOWater

Drawdown

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Lowering of the groundwater level at a given point by the extraction of water from the water table, the lowering of a water line of a stream in relation with groundwater or under the influence of earthworks, etc.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Dredging

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to the SDAGE and Order of 22 September 1994, this means removing alluvial deposits accumulated on the riverbed. Indeed, Article 11 of the Decree of 22 September 1994 provides that the extraction of materials in the riverbed of watercourses and bodies of water crossed by streams is prohibited. If extraction of alluvial materials is necessary for duly justified maintenance, or for the development of a watercourse or a
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Drinking water

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water suitable for comsumption, as containing no pathogen. Water abstracted directly from the ground may not always be drunk as it is. It must be controlled and possibly purified before being supplied to users.
Source
According to Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Drinking water abstraction

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Device used for withdrawing water (spring, groundwater, river) for a given use.

Source
According to Ifremer

Drinking water supply

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

All facilities, services and activities which allow, by using untreated water, producing water which meets the drinking water standards in force, then distributed to consumers. We consider five distinct steps in this supply, abstraction, intakes, drinking water treatment, conveyance (transport and storage), and distribution to the consumer.

Source
According to AFB

Drinking water supply security

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All internal measures of a supply unit (drinking water supply system) to supply users in critical or crisis situations (accidental pollution of the resource, etc): interconnections between systems, use of different water resources, etc. These emergency solutions to be implemented must be listed in the specialized emergency response plan developed by the departmental administration. By extension, it means being able to ensure
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Drinking water supply system

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the overall water supply system including pipes, tanks, pumping stations and other equipment through which water is supplied to users. This part begins at the exit of drinking water production plants and ends at the point of water delivery to the user. It does not include private pipes and accessories of buildings that bring water to the consumption points.
Source
According to the Ministries of the Environment and Health and AFB

Drinking water supply unit

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A supply system wherein water quality is deemed to be homogeneous. A drinking water supply unit is managed by a single operator, owned by the same owner and belongs to a single administrative unit.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Drought

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

The normal or temporary status of the soil or environment, corresponding to a water shortage, over a significantly long period so that it causes impacts on natural or cultivated flora, wildlife or livestock.

Source
According to Wikipédia

Dry 5-year flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Monthly flow with a 4/5 probability of being exceeded every year. It allows characterizing a calendar month with low hydraulicity.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Dry marsh

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Marsh protected from floods and tides by a network of dikes and levees.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Drying bed

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure made of concrete whose floor is sealed by a tarpaulin or concrete slab, to dry sewage sludge. The sludge from the sewage treatment system is extracted directly from the clarifier and transferred after flocculation to the bed. After drying, the sludge is then raked manually, taken and stored.
Source
according to the General Council of Seine-et-Marne

Drying up

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Gradual reduction of the water flow, until available resources are exhausted.

Source
according to IOWater

Drying-out

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Temporary drying out of a watercourse or of a river section.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council
Sens technique

As part of the monitoring carried out by the National Observatory of Low Water, a watercourse is considered in a dry period when the water is totally evaporated or infiltrated on more than 50% of the reporting station.

Source
According to AFB

Dune

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mound of sand formed by coastal wind. A dune plays a significant role in protecting the lower coasts.
Source
according to IFREMER