Glossaire de A à Z


Calibration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to establish the rating curve of a data acquisition device that does not provide a direct measure of the quantity sought.
Source
According to BRGM

Canal

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Hydraulic structure fed by water withdrawals from watercourses or bodies of water and mainly intended for navigation, drainage, irrigation or flow regulation.
Source
According to AFB

Carbon cycle

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Movement of carbon, in its various forms, between the natural reservoirs of the planet.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Circulation and storage of carbon, in its various forms, between the Earth surface and interior, the atmosphere and biosphere. The main mechanisms of carbon exchange are photosynthesis, respiration and oxidation. A transfer takes place between living organisms, the atmosphere, the earth and water.
Source
according to FAO and IOWater

Cartographic database

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Cartographic database of the National Geographic Institute (IGN) covering the entire country. It is a description of the territory in digital form designed for a basic scale ranging from 1:50,000 to 1:100,000. Its decametric accuracy, and the complete and structured information it presents, give it a role of a national homogeneous repository, adapted to the needs of users of geographic information on a national, regional or departmental scale
Source
Sandre

Catadrome

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A migratory species that migrates down rivers to breed at sea. An example is the European eel.

Source
according to MNHN and IOWater

Catchment area

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Surface area feeding a watercourse or a body of water. The catchment area is defined as the area of water collecting up to an outlet: it is limited by a border within which all waters flow on the surface and underground to this outlet. Its boundaries are the watersheds (water divide - US).

Source
According to AFB

Cell

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Structural, functional and reproductive unit constituting all or part of a living being.
Source
According to AFB

Cetacean

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic mammal with front flippers and a horizontal caudal fin – the tail -. For example, whales, sperm whales and dolphins are cetaceans
Source
according to the Robert dictionary

Charges/fees for non-point source pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by producers of plant protection products. This fee takes into account the level of toxicity and dangerousness of substances used in agricultural and gardening activities. It encourages users to choose less polluting products.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for obstacle on rivers

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount due by any owner of a structure that constitutes a continuous obstacle between the two banks of a watercourse (except for structures forming part of hydroelectric installations subject to the fee for water resource abstraction, or where the height difference is less than 5 m, or located on rivers whose average interannual flow is less than 0.3 m3/s at the right of the obstacle).
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment, the Court of Auditors and Water Agencies

Charges/fees for pollution from domestic sources

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by all inhabitants of a community according to their water consumption. The individual actions of each inhabitant to reduce his own consumption (wastage control, leak detection...) may directly lower the amounts paid.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for pollution from non-domestic sources

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by the industrialists according to the volume of the discharged pollution. This fee aims to encourage companies and manufacturers to reduce their discharges. The charge rates are set according to the pollutant elements and can be modulated by zone, to take into account the status of the natural environment.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for sanitation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by the users connected to a collective sanitation system, on their water bill. Users of an on-site sanitation facility must pay a special fee to finance the public on-site sanitation service costs.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and Water Agencies

Charges/fees for the protection of aquatic environments

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by fishermen at the issuing of the fishing license. It is levied by the departmental or interdepartmental federations of approved associations for fishing and the protection of aquatic environments, from approved associations of amateur fishermen with gear and nets and from approved associations of professional fishing in freshwater.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for water abstraction/withdrawal

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money due for water withdrawals, regardless of the user (municipality, industry, farmer) according to specific thresholds. This fee usually has two components: one based on the amount of water withdrawn, the other on the amount of water consumed (i.e. taken and not returned to the natural environment).
Source
according to the Water Agencies and Court of Auditors

Charges/fees for water storage during low-water periods

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Amount of money paid by people who store all or part of the volume flowing into a river during low water periods (provided that the capacity of the facility is greater than one million cubic meters). The amount of this fee depends on a rate and a basis, the latter being the volume of water stored during the low water period. The period and the rate are defined by the river basin authorities, according to the hydrological regime of the river.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Chemical status

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Water quality assessment based on the concentrations of pollutants including priority substances in particular. The chemical status has two classes: good and poor. Good chemical status of surface water is achieved when the concentrations of pollutants do not exceed the environmental quality standards. Good chemical status of groundwater is reached when the concentrations of pollutants do not show any effect of salt water inflow, do not exceed the quality standards and do not prevent achieving the objectives for associated surface water.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Chronic pollution

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
As opposed to "accidental pollution", it is a permanent or episodic pollution, known or predictable, which can be highly variable over time.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Circalittoral zone

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Space between the limit of the infralittoral zone (lower limit of life for the majority of multicellular algae) and the depth at which photosynthesis becomes impossible due to the too low amount of light. The depth of the circalittoral zone, generally a hundred meters, depends on the more or less transparency of water. The plant species that develop there are the algae most tolerant to minimum amount of light, known as sciaphilous plants. The circalittoral zone has a low environmental variability, and its temperature varies little between seasons.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Circular economy

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Organisation of economic and social activities using production, consumption and exchange methods based on eco-design, repair, re-use and recycling, with a view to reducing the volume of the resources used and the damage caused to the environment.
Source
according to the services of the Prime Minister
Sens technique
Economic concept that fits into the framework of sustainable development and whose objective is to produce goods and services while limiting the consumption and wastage of raw materials, water and energy sources. It means using a new economy, which is circular and no longer linear, based on the principle of "closing the life cycle" of products, services, waste, materials, water and energy.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Classified flow rate

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Statistics on characteristic flows. We can express the value of the classified flow not exceeded over n days per year on the average (DCNn) or the value of the classified flow exceeded over n days per year (DCXn).
Source
According to Cemagref

Classified site

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Natural or built-up area in which work that could affect the site requires a prefectural or ministerial authorization.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Cleaning

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Cleanup of a polluted, silted or filled up area by removing unwanted materials to bring it back to a status close to the initial one considered as more advantageous.
Source
According to Ifremer

Climate change

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Long lasting and measurable modification of the climate. According to the sources, the term climate change can encompass natural and anthropogenic changes (for IPCC, for example) or only changes related to human activity (according to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change).
Source
according to IPCC

Climatology

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Study of the action of meteorological phenomena on different parts of the planet, of their mutual reactions, of their temporal evolution, and of different climates.
Source
according to the Robert dictionary

Closed and bounded question

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Interrogation method consisting in asking a first valuation question such as "Would you be willing to pay €10 for ...?" and a second in which the proposed amount depends on the answer to the first question: greater amount if the answer to the first question is "yes", smaller otherwise. For the contingent valuation method, asking a closed bounded question may be tricky in a mail survey. The mail survey does not necessarily preclude such questioning but its use is usually not recommended.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology and IOWater

CMR substance

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Substance capable of having a specific toxic effect on the body: carcinogenic effect (C), mutagenic effect (M), toxic effect to reproduction (R), either by disrupting the function of reproduction, or by causing anomalies and malformations of the embryo.
Source
According to Ifremer

Coast

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Geomorphological entity marking the boundary between continents and oceans.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Coast line

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Developed length of the coast. The measurement of the coast line implies that a number of preliminary choices are made: taking the mainland surface area? Which zero to choose: that of the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Navy (SHOM) or that of the National Geographic Institute (IGN)? Taking into account the high water spring tide mark? Keeping all the islands? What to do for estuaries?
Source
According to Ifremer

Coastal aquifer

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An aquifer, one of the limits of which is the sea. Therefore, the level of the aquifer is imposed by the sea level. It results that, if usually freshwater of coastal aquifers flows into the sea, salt water can enter into the aquifer depending on the load variations within the aquifer (natural status or overexploitation of coastal
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Coastal fishing

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Fishing carried out by vessels absent from port more than 24 hours and 96 hours maximum.

Source
d'après Conseil régional de Poitou-Charentes

Coastal sedimentation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The process by which the shore gains on the sea by sediment accumulation (sand, in particular), their volume exceeding the capacity of waves and currents to move them.
Source
according to AFB

Coastal waters

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Surface waters located between the baseline used to measure the width of territorial waters and a distance of one nautical mile.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Coastal zone

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of slow-flowing aquatic environments that extend from the shore to the limit of light penetration.
Source
according to AFB

Coastline

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Line marking the limit that marine waters can reach: i.e. the end of an uprush during heavy storms occurring at high water spring tides. It is defined by the edge of the calm water at the highest possible seas.
Source
According to Ifremer

Code of a measuring station

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Identifier of one measuring station managed by the National Service for Water Data and Reference-dataset Management (Sandre), issued by the Water Agencies for all the stations measuring water quality in their basin.

Source
According to AFB

cohesive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Characteristic of soil with cohesion. Clays and silts are cohesive soils, sands and clean gravels (i.e. free of fine particles) are non-cohesive (or powdery).
Source
According to Cemagref

Collecting rate

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Amount of untreated pollution that reaches the entrance to the wastewater treatment plant. It is calculated by the ratio between the pollution entering the plant and untreated pollution.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Collecting system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Any system which, by measurement, observation or any other method, can acquire knowledge data on: aquatic environments, water resources and uses, pressures (and associated impacts) exercised on the environments and resources, and related economic data. It may be monitoring networks, surveys (water prices, economic activities), inventories (wetlands, lakes, flood-risk areas, protection perimeters ...), etc.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Collective sanitation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

A sanitation process including a public system for wastewater collecting and conveyance to a treatment plant.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Combined sewer system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
System discharging domestic wastewater and stormwater into the same sewers. The combined network adds the economic advantage (a sole system to build and manage) to simplicity (any connection error is excluded by definition), but requires the taking into account of abrupt changes in the flow of rainwater when designing and sizing collectors and treatment facilities.
Source
According to IOWater

Combined system

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

A sanitation system made of a single system in which wastewater and stormwater are mixed and directed to the treatment plant when there is one. During rainy periods, a portion of the mixture (overflow) may be discharged by storm drains.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Combre

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Wood, piles, cofferdam, dam, fixed gear in the river bed, designed to stop the fish, protect the river banks, fix alluvium in heap.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Common agricultural policy (CAP)

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

European politics initiated in 1957 and implemented in 1962 on the basis of an agreement between the members of the European Union, in order to guarantee a sufficient food supply for the population, while ensuring sustainable earnings to the farmers.

Source
According to European Commission

Common Implementation Strategy

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Specific organization established to ensure coherence in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC in the Member States. It gathers the European Commission, State governments, experts, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and stakeholders. Several guidance documents were drafted within this framework.
Source

Compensation cost

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Additional cost incurred by a water user as a result of environmental degradation by another user.
Source
According to AFB

Competent authority

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Authority responsible for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) on the WFD basin scale (or district). In France, they are the Basin Coordinator Prefects and, for Corsica, the Corsican local authorities.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Compliance

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action to compare one thing with another. The National Service for Water Data and Common Reference Frames Management (Sandre) establishes compliances by comparing its specifications to the results produced by a database or software. In this sense, the applicant (data producers, laboratories, software publishers, etc.) for compliance makes sure that the system applies Sandre specifications. Sandre gives a label when the compliance result is good.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Compliance action

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Action to change and improve the concerned facilities to comply with the regulations affecting them.

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Concentration

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Proportion of a chemical substance dissolved in a solution.
Source
According to BRGM

Conceptual Data Model

Updated on 11/03/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Diagram showing the structure of the information system from the data viewpoint, i.e. the dependencies or relationships between the different data of the information system: a conceptual data model (CDM) formally describes the data that will be used by the information system. The basic concepts are:

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Concerted Management

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Approach to adopt decisions by involving the stakeholders concerned, including users, to solve a problem of water management.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Concession

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Legal act regarding an agreement between the government or a local government and another public or private partner. There are several types of concessions: (i) the public service concession (method for the management of a public utility which consists in contractually entrust the management of the utility and the building of infrastructure to a dealer/concession owner acting at his own risk, and paid by billing the users of the service - (drinking water supply, sanitation, etc.), (ii) the public works concession (process for building public works characterized by the method used for the Contractor's remuneration, to whom is granted the right to exploit the work against payment for a specified time - (case of hydroelectric power plants with power at least equal to 4,500 kW); and (iii) the public domain concession (contract under administrative law granting to the beneficiary the right to use privately a more or less greater part of the public domain in return for remuneration).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Confined aquifer

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Volume of groundwater at a pressure usually higher than the atmospheric pressure because isolated from the ground surface by an impermeable geological formation. An aquifer can have an unconfined section and a confined one. Confined aquifers are often deep or very deep (1,000 m or more).
Source
According to BRGM

Confined groundwater

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Fully saturated aquifer with a confined groundwater layer limited at its top by very low permeability formations preventing any significant flow.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Conflict of use

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Incipient disagreement between different users of the same environment, likely to have conflicting or competing interests.
Source
according to IFREMER

Connection contract

Updated on 05/03/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Convention by which the mayor specifies to an industrialist who wishes to connect to the communal sewer system the conditions to which this connection is authorized in accordance with Article L 35-8 of the Public Health Code.

Source
d'après Agence de l'eau Rhône-Méditerranée et Corse

Connection to a sewer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All the private pipes, buried or not, located outside the house, between the sanitary (bathroom, toilet) or household appliances (sink, laundry tray...) and the junction manhole.
Source
according to the Artois-Picardy Water Agency

Consent to receive

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Amount that the surveyed people are willing to accept to leave their environment deteriorating.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Constructed wetland

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

System which allows the purification of wastewater by plants mostly reeds: the phytopurification. This method consists in making wastewater flowing through submersed plants, which roots have a high purification power.

Source
According to IOWater

Contaminated soil

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Soil containing dangerous substances of exogenous origin at abnormally high levels, exceeding the contamination levels (thresholds set out in the simplified assessment grid of polluted sites established by the Ministry for the Environment). Exceeding these thresholds requires further investigation.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Contamination

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Process by which a biotope - and (or) a population or an entire community - is exposed to a chemical or radioactive pollutant.
Source
According to François Ramade (ecologist)

Continental shelf

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the continent below sea level, from the coastal zone up to 200 m deep. The continental shelf ends with the continental slope, which continues with a steep drop to the abyssal plains.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Continental slope

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
High elevation zone that leads from the edge of the continental shelf to the abyssal plain.
Source
according to IFREMER

Contingent valuation method

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for measuring the increase in well-being generated by environmental improvement. The contingent valuation method is based on surveys. It consists in proposing respondents a hypothetical scenario to get them to declare the maximum amount they would be willing to pay for this environmental improvement.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Control operation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All on-site measurements, samples and/or analyses, which are performed at a control point for a specified period, in accordance with a control protocol, for assessing a quality element and producing observation data.

Source
According to AFB

Control variable

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Variable used to control rivers, broadly imposed by geology and climate: e.g. liquid flow, solid flow, geometry of the valley (slope in particular), nature of the forest cover in the catchment area, particle sizes and mechanical properties of the river bed and
Source
According to Cemagref

Cooling water

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water used to absorb and transfer heat. There are usually two types of cooling waters: those used for electricity generation in thermal power plants and those used in other industrial processes.
Source
According to Eurostat

Corrected water level

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Water level modified by the station manager using a theoretical correction curve that can correct a water level when a disturbing phenomenon occurs.
Source
According to SCHAPI

Cost recovery

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to this principle, the water users bear as much as possible the costs incurred by their water uses: investment, operating and depreciation costs, environmental costs, and even, if possible, the cost of the resource. This principle is called "cost recovery". On this principle, the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC sets two targets for Member States: by late 2004, the assessment should include the current level of recovery, distinguishing at least three economic sectors (industry, agriculture and households); by 2010, the taking into account of this principle, particularly through water pricing. The Directive requires transparency in the financing of water policy, but it does not set an obligation to full cost recovery on uses.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Cost-benefit analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Analysis comparing the benefits to all the costs of a given project and of its alternatives, including the impacts that are not submitted to monetary flows (often regarding the environment). The "Cost-Benefit" analysis is a decision-making supporting tool providing objective evidence to the debate. Depending on the value of the benefit/cost ratio, the evaluated project is deemed profitable or not.
Source
According to OECD

Cost-effectiveness analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Analysis that identifies the various means and instruments to be developed to achieve a set target at lower cost. This analysis allows classifying the measures according to their effectiveness in achieving an environmental goal, but it does not provide answers about the relevance of a measure or a project as such.
Source
According to AFB

Cost-of-illness method

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for assessing the cost of degradation of an environmental good. Degradation of an environmental good can lead to an increased death rate and an increase in health care costs: cost evaluation, including the definition of dose-response relations, allows estimating a degradation cost of the good studied.  
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Cost-replacement method

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method for assessing the cost incurred by the replacement of a destroyed environmental asset. Options may consider the cost of restoration or relocation. With this method, it is necessary to estimate the costs required to qualitatively and quantitatively restore biodiversity and to recover the services it provides.  
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Cove

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
In Provence, means a recess from the coast, long and narrow with steep slopes generally made of hard limestone.
Source
According to Ifremer

Cover crops

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

The vegetation that covers the ground. The vegetation cover of a soil is an agri-environmental good practice which induces benefits, such as the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, soil protection and a greater biodiversity.

Source
According to Unesco

Crisis management

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All the organisational processes, techniques and means used to prepare for a crisis, to cope with it and to mitigate its consequences. Crisis management includes alert, coordinated relief response and retrospective analysis of the sequence and effects of the first two phases.
Source
according to CELF

Critical low flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Low flow value below which the supply of drinking water for essential needs for human and animal life, and for the survival of the species found in the environment, are endangered. At this low-flow level, all possible measures to restrict consumption and

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Critically endangered species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Refers to a taxa when the best available data indicate that it is facing a "extremely high" risk of extinction in the wild.

Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Crop rotation

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Technique used in agriculture and gardening that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility and increase yields. Crop rotation is when different crops follow each other in a certain order on the same plot, the same succession of crops being reproduced over time in regular cycles. The rotation can be two/three/four-year rotations, etc.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Crop rotations

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Periods between crop rotations, during which the soil is usually exposed and vulnerable to runoff, causing the migration of nitrates into water, but also accelerating its erosion and degrading its quality. Some crops, planted at this period (and called intercrops by extension) can reduce this problem.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Agriculture

Cross dyke

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Wall of stones and pebbles crossing a stream or bordering a beach to stop the fish at ebb tide, longitudinal dike or biases in the bed of the Loire to regulate and channel a watercourse.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Cross-subsidy

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Term for financial transfers between categories of users of the same water and sanitation services. According to the Water Framework Directive, the main categories of users of water and sanitation services are households, industry and farmers.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Crustacean

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Arthropods with a body made up of segments linked to each other by a joint membrane and wearing a pair of jointed appendix. They can be distinguished from other arthropods by the presence of two pairs of antennae. They live in freshwater, marine waters or in terrestrial environments. They can be mobile or fixed to a support.

Source
According to Ifremer

Crusting and surface sealing

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Soil disintegration under the action of raindrops and formation of a surface crust that reduces infiltration.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Cultural Service

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Non-material benefit that man can enjoy thanks to the ecosystems through reflection, recreation, aesthetics or cultural enrichment.
Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Curage vieux fonds, vieux bords

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
French expression used in old regulations and local practices that specify the conditions and frequency with which the cleaning obligation must be fulfilled by every riverside resident of a non-state-owned watercourse by article 98 of the Rural Code. It is a routine maintenance of the stream by the riverside resident or his rightful owner. Sometimes called "vifs fonds - vieux bords".
Source
According to the Rural Code