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Water column

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Volume of water between the bottom and the surface of a sea, ocean, river or lake.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Concept used in ecology for aquatic and marine environments to describe the physical (temperature, salinity, penetration of light) and chemical characteristics (pH, dissolved oxygen content, nutrients, trace metals...) of seawater, at different depths, for a given geographical point. The water column extends from the water surface to the bottom of rivers,
Source
according to IFREMER

Alevin

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Young fish living on its yolk reserves or having not yet acquired its adult form.

Source
according to Larousse dictionary

Hatching/Hatchery

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Repopulation of fresh water by introducing fry, practiced by people for fishing or fish farming.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Algae

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Unicellular or pluricellular photosynthetic organism usually living in an aquatic environment.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Ammonification

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Production of ammonia from organic nitrogen by bacteria or decomposer fungi.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Amphibian

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.

Source
according to Aquitaine Wildlife Observatory (AWO)

Cetacean

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic mammal with front flippers and a horizontal caudal fin – the tail -. For example, whales, sperm whales and dolphins are cetaceans
Source
according to the Robert dictionary

Berne Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats signed in 1979 and entered into force in 1982. For the Member States of the European Union, the so-called Birds and Habitats Directives are the framework in which the provisions of the Berne Convention apply. The habitat requirements are met by the designation of protected areas, known as Natura 2000.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Crustacean

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Arthropods with a body made up of segments linked to each other by a joint membrane and wearing a pair of jointed appendix. They can be distinguished from other arthropods by the presence of two pairs of antennae. They live in freshwater, marine waters or in terrestrial environments. They can be mobile or fixed to a support.

Source
According to Ifremer

Biological cycle

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Regularly repetitive succession of the same series of events in the existence of a living being, a breeding line or the whole of the living world.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Carbon cycle

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Movement of carbon, in its various forms, between the natural reservoirs of the planet.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Circulation and storage of carbon, in its various forms, between the Earth surface and interior, the atmosphere and biosphere. The main mechanisms of carbon exchange are photosynthesis, respiration and oxidation. A transfer takes place between living organisms, the atmosphere, the earth and water.
Source
according to FAO and IOWater

Phosphorus cycle

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All exchanges and transformations of phosphorus in the different components of the environment. Unlike many other biogeochemical cycles, the phosphorus cycle has no impact on the atmosphere.
Source
According to Wikipedia and Lenntech

Sulphur cycle

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All exchanges and transformations of sulphur in the different components of the environment.
Source
According to Wikipedia

Protected species

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant or animal species benefiting from a legal protection status for reasons of scientific interest or the need to preserve the biological heritage.
Source
according to AFB and IUCN

Flora

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant species growing in a given geographical area or environment.
Source
according to ADEME

Aquatic flora

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant species growing in aquatic environments.
Source
according to ADEME

Macrophyte biological index for rivers

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Index assessing the biological status of rivers based on macrophytes. Applicable to the inland parts of rivers, it essentially reflects the degree of tropism (feeding process of plant organs and tissues) related to ammonium and orthophosphate contents, as well as the most obvious organic pollution.
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of the Loire reg

Lichen

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organism generated by symbiotic association between a mushroom (which brings water and mineral salts) and algae (which creates, by photosynthesis, different organic compounds that it yields in part to the mushroom). Lichens are able to withstand extreme weather conditions and are able to accumulate mineral compounds well beyond their own needs. As a result, they are often used as pollution indicators.
Source
according to IFREMER

Macroplankton

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Large plankton visible to the naked eye. Jellyfish and ctenophora are part of the macroplankton.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Organic matter

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Matter generated by living beings (plants, animals, mushrooms and other decomposers including micro-organisms).
Source
according to Wikipedia

Microplankton

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plankton of very small size, invisible to the naked eye.
Source
according to IFREMER

Molluscs

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic or terrestrial, non-segmented animal whose bilateral symmetry is sometimes altered. The body of a mollusc usually consists of a head, a visceral mass and a foot. The visceral mass is covered in whole or in part by a mantle, which secretes a calcareous shell.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Nutrient

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All inorganic compounds and ions necessary for the nutrition of living organisms.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Electric fishing

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Method used to evaluate the abundance of fish species in a portion of a stream and to precise the different populations. It consists in the creation of an electric current which attracts fish. Then, paralyzed by electricity, they rise to the surface, which helps their identification and counts. After a little while, fish are free to circulate in the stream again.

Source
According to Wikipedia et Val-de-Meurthe municipality communities

Photosynthesis

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The ability of plants to consume carbon dioxide from the air, to assimilate carbon compounds and to release oxygen.
Source
according to IFREMER