Rechercher un terme


Affichage des termes 1 à 25 sur un total de 150

Water balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio between inflows to (e.g. precipitation, runoff, capillary rise) and outflows (e.g. transpiration or evaporation) from a given system over a given time interval, which gives the variation in water storage. The water balance allows knowing the soil water storage capacity, potentially usable for different purposes (agriculture or other).
Source
according to INRA and Aquitaine Chamber of Agriculture

Organic farming

Updated on 13/10/2021
Définition
Sens commun

Un Label. Méthode de production agricole excluant le recours aux produits chimiques de synthèse utilisés par l’agriculture industrielle et intensive. Les agriculteurs labellisés « bio » sont regroupés en fédérations avec des cahiers des charges à respecter. Ces derniers comprennent en général l’utilisation d’engrais d’origine naturelle, l’interdiction d’intrants d’origine chimique, la rotation des cultures et des élevages peu intensifs de manière à préserver les sols.

Source
d'après la Cité de l'agriculture

Brown infrastructure (soil)

Updated on 30/10/2020
Définition
Sens technique

Expression inventée sur le modèle de la Trame Verte et Bleue, appliquée à la continuité écologique des sols. Largement ignorés pendant de nombreuses années, ces derniers sont pourtant essentiels au fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Ce terme désigne le réseau écologique en profondeur, à préserver et restaurer.

Source
d'après Bureau d'études Lichen conseil en éco-urbanisme

Agroecology

Updated on 28/04/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Démarche scientifique attentive aux phénomènes biologiques qui combine développement agricole et protection/régénération de l’environnement naturel. Elle est à la base d’un système global de gestion d’une agriculture multifonctionnelle et durable, qui valorise les agro-écosystèmes, optimise la production et minimise les intrants.

Des systèmes de production agricole valorisant la diversité biologique et les processus naturels (cycles de l’azote, du carbone, de l’eau, équilibres biologiques entre organismes ravageurs et auxiliaires des cultures…). L’agroécologie se développe dans le champ scientifique comme une approche intégrant les concepts et méthodes d’une diversité de disciplines dont l’agronomie, l’écologie, l’économie, la sociologie.

 

Source
d'après Ministère de l'agriculture et l'INRAe

Geodiversity

Updated on 09/11/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Ensemble des éléments des sous-sols, sols et paysages qui, assemblés les uns aux autres, constituent des systèmes organisés, issus de processus géologiques (SHARPLES, 1995). Cela concerne autant les phénomènes passés de la Terre (traces de vie, d'écosystèmes et d'environnements), observables dans les sous-sols, sols et paysages, que les phénomènes courants actuels (biologiques, climatiques, atmosphériques) qui agissent sur ces mêmes sous-sols, sols et paysages (EBERHARD, 1997).

Source
d'après l'INPN
Sens réglementaire

Diversité géologique, géomorphologique, hydrologique et pédologique ainsi que l'ensemble des processus dynamiques qui les régissent, y compris dans leurs interactions avec la faune, la flore et le climat. L'article L110-1 du Code de l'environnement modifié par la loi n° 2021-85 du 29 janvier 2021 visant à définir et protéger le patrimoine sensoriel des campagnes françaises

Source
d'après code de l'environnement

Extractable soil water

Updated on 05/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Quantity of water that the soil can hold and return immediately to the roots of plants. It is expressed in millimeters (mm).

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'environnement et AFB
Sens technique

The extractable soil water (RU) is the fraction of the soil water reserve available to the plant, or that which can be extracted by the plant through root suction. It is expressed in millimetres of water.

Source
d'après INRA

Water Board

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A Local public institution located overseas, similar to the water agencies in continental France, which is responsible for facilitating the various activities of common interest in the management of water and aquatic environments to help achieving the objectives of the river basin management plans (SDAGEs). There is currently a water board in the Reunion, Martinique, Guadeloupe and Guyana. Since Mayotte became a Department, there are thoughts of creating a water board.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Environmental audit

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Management instrument including a systematic, documented, periodic and objective assessment of the effectiveness of the organisation, management system and procedures in terms of environmental impact. An environmental audit can be carried out without a reference system, with a diagnostic purpose, or with a reference system, in order to check compliance with rules or standards.
Source
according to Cogiterra

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Hydraulic equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Equipment or infrastructure used for the abstraction, storage, treatment, conveying or transfer of water.
Source
according to the Corsican Hydraulic Equipment Office

Public river-basin territorial agency

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Group of local authorities established, at a watershed or a group of sub-watersheds scale, in order to facilitate the flood prevention, the defense against the sea, the management of water resources, and the preservation and management of wetlands. When a Sub-basin Management Plan has been set up, the Public river-basin territorial agency contributes to its monitoring and development. It ensures also the consistency of the management project of the Public water management and development agency.

Source
according to Legifrance

Macrophyte biological index for rivers

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Index assessing the biological status of rivers based on macrophytes. Applicable to the inland parts of rivers, it essentially reflects the degree of tropism (feeding process of plant organs and tissues) related to ammonium and orthophosphate contents, as well as the most obvious organic pollution.
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of the Loire reg

Landscape integration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Landscaping (choice of colours, materials and architecture, planting of trees and flowerbeds for example) to integrate buildings and constructions in their environment.
Source
according to the Ardennes Chamber of Agriculture

Metrology

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that measures parameters with sensors. Metrology measures, for example, the speed of marine currents or the chemistry of water.
Source
according to IFREMER

Electric fishing

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Method used to evaluate the abundance of fish species in a portion of a stream and to precise the different populations. It consists in the creation of an electric current which attracts fish. Then, paralyzed by electricity, they rise to the surface, which helps their identification and counts. After a little while, fish are free to circulate in the stream again.

Source
According to Wikipedia et Val-de-Meurthe municipality communities

Sampling point

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Place of collection of water samples for analysis.
Source
according to AFB

Landscape restoration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Restructuring of an artificialised area, possibly a fallow land, in order to make it practicable and attractive for residents while integrating it into the landscape.
Source
according to ONF

Groundwater restoration/remediation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Corrective action to improve the quality of groundwater.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Risk of not achieving good status

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Risk that, in 2015, the water bodies of a given area will not achieve the objectives set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD).
Source
according to the Artois-Picardy Water Agency

Inland waterway

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A harnessed river or canal open to traffic and waterways transport.
Source
according to Wikipedia

National Park

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Remarkable area of the territory that has been classified as "National Park & nbsp;" because of its exceptional natural wealth, from the point of view of landscape quality and natural, historical or cultural heritage. The establishment of a national park requires a certification by the State. It usually generates specific regulations for the protection of fauna and flora.
Source
according to the Observatory of the Mediterranean Forest

Regional natural park

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A vast area where the community stakeholders look for a development respectful of the natural balances, and sometimes a solution for maintaining declining traditional activities. A regional natural park (RNP) is usually managed by a public inter-municipal cooperation organisation, an open mixed syndicate whose board of directors is composed of elected representatives of the member communities (municipalities, departments, regions) and sometimes socio-economic partners. PNRs are classified for a 12-year renewable period.
Source
according to the Observatory of the Mediterranean Forest

Green and Blue Habitat network

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Network consisting of terrestrial ecological ("green" habitat) and aquatic ("blue" habitat) continuities, especially identified in regional ecological coherence schemes (RECS). The green and blue habitats (GBH) contribute to the enabling conservation status of natural habitats and species and to the good ecological status of water bodies, as well as to maintain the services that biodiversity provides (water quality, pollination, flood prevention, improvement of the living environment, etc.). It extends to the transversal limit of the sea. The GBH is a tool of sustainable development and regional planning, with the master plans for water development and management (SDAGE). It is also a tool for preserving biodiversity, combined with all the other existing tools: protected areas, national parks, nature reserves, biotope protection decrees, Natura 2000, regional natural parks, national action plans for endangered species, etc.) under the 2011-2020 National Biodiversity Strategy.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment