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A type of drought corresponding to a pronounced and prolonged deficit of precipitation.
Bon fonctionnement des écosystèmes (au niveau biologique, physique, chimique et sanitaire) permettant un usage durable du milieu marin. Onze descripteurs qualitatifs (annexe 1 de la DCSMM), communs à tous les États membres de l'Union européenne, servent à définir le bon état écologique : Biodiversité ; Espèces non indigènes ; Espèces commerciales ; Réseaux trophiques ; Eutrophisation ; Intégrité des fonds marins ; changements hydrographiques ; Contaminants ; Questions sanitaires ; Déchets marins ; Bruit sous-marin.
According to the hydro-geological meaning, a water volume supplying an aquifer over a given time. Rainfalls are mainly recharging groundwater. Unconfined groundwaters are recharged rather fast at each rainfall event. The rise in water levels and rainfall events are observed on a piezometric curve.
Elevation defined either in NGF level (French levelling network) or in relative depth. The NGF level, established under the control of the National Geographic Institute (IGN), is the reference. NGF can indeed express altitudes in one and unique reference system, i.e. as compared to the same and unique fundamental point (or "origin-zero" or point zero). The "0" level is the average sea level in Marseilles. This point is used to determine the altitude of any other point. The elevation of the piezometric record can also be expressed in relative depth with respect to the benchmark of the
The piezometric record is the collecting of the evolutions in time of the monitored groundwater level or piezometric level (see piezometric level). It consists of measurements that link the water level to a given date. Depending on the variability of groundwater level, the measurements are more or less close in time. The measurements obtained are positive or negative with respect to the measurement benchmark: they are positive when the groundwater level is below the benchmark measurement (the most common cases) and negative in the opposite case (artesian wells). Artesian: a well is artesian when the water is gushing. A record is represented by a curve which is time-slotted to be stored in a succession of points, each point representing a groundwater level at any given time. Points are linked to each other by means of a code that indicates whether a point is related to the preceding point in time. If the point is not related, it is then the initial point of a new part of the record…
In the strict sense, it is taking a sample (sampling) for analysis or testing. More generally, water withdrawals include all abstractions related to activities generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), drinking water supply, or others (authorized spring of mineral water, production of artificial snow). In this case, the withdrawals are grouped into 3 subtypes corresponding to the affected environment: surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstractions, seawater withdrawals.
Value (flow rate of streams, groundwater level, reserve storage, etc) necessary for the quantitative management of the resource. The quantity goals are set to achieve a satisfactory balance between the demands of human activities and the requirements of aquatic environments on the one hand; and the surface and groundwater resources that can be mobilized, on the other. At nodal points, these values are the
Surface area feeding a watercourse or a body of water. The catchment area is defined as the area of water collecting up to an outlet: it is limited by a border within which all waters flow on the surface and underground to this outlet. Its boundaries are the watersheds (water divide - US).