Rechercher un terme


Affichage des termes 1 à 25 sur un total de 200

Water softening

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
It is a technique to remove minerals that cause water hardness, especially calcium and magnesium.
Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique
A technique consisting in exchanging the calcium and magnesium ions, which are not very soluble and which react with the carbonates of water to form limestone, with the sodium ions which are perfectly soluble in water. This operation is named "ion exchange".
Source
According to UAE

Water aeration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Bringing water and air in close contact to remove all dissolved gases (especially those responsible for bad odours) from water and introducing oxygen to oxidise certain compounds such as iron and manganese to prevent corrosion).
Source
according to WHO

Bactericide

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Substance, or property of a substance, that destroys bacteria. Some disinfectants and antibiotics are bactericidal.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Decarbonatation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Removal of some calcium and magnesium from water to achieve a compromise between the proper mineral balance of water and the optimum level of hardness.
Source
according to IFREMER and the General Council of Seine-et-Marn

Demineralisation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to remove minerals and salts from water to produce demineralised water.
Source
according to Lenntech

Approved laboratory

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Laboratory authorised by the Ministry in charge of the field in which it is competent. For example, the Ministry of Health approves laboratories carrying out analyses on the quality of water intended for human consumption (excluding natural mineral waters), swimming and bathing water (bathing with full amenities and other bathing). Another example is the Ministry of the Environment, which approves laboratories carrying out analyses in the field of water and aquatic environments under the Environment Code.
Source
according to the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of the Environment

Water salinity

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of salts dissolved in water.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Macropollutants

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All the suspended material in water, organic matter or nutrients, such as nitrogen or phosphate. They may occur naturally in water but their concentration increases with human activities (wastewater discharge, agriculture...). In contrast to micropollutants, which are toxic even at low concentration, macropolluants requires higher content to cause bad effects.

Source
According to SOeS

Physico-chemical

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Physical and chemical characteristics of water. Inside a water analysis, the observed parameters are quite numerous, and all of these allow to determine the physical-chemical water quality, which determines the maintenance of river biodiversity. These parameters could be for example, temperature, turbidity, concentration of organic matter, mineral, nitrogen, etc.

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Isotope

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
Chemical element with the same atomic number (same number of protons) but different atomic masses (different number of neutrons). Isotopes can be stable or radioactive. The ratio between the amounts of the stable isotope and the radioactive isotope in water can be used to date the latter (example of C14 for the best known). Mass differences between isotopes can, for their part, explain the origin of a water sample: e.g. the content of rainwater in O18 with respect to O15 decreases with altitude.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Water Law of 3 January 1992

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Law making the necessary amendments to the legislative framework to implement the numerous European directives for defining the quality standards that water must meet for certain uses (drinking water, bathing water, fish-breeding water, shellfish waters). One of the strengths of the law of 3 January 1992 is the introduction of two new global water resources planning systems: master plans for water development and management (SDAGE) for each of the major French river basins, and water management and management plans (SAGE) developed on a more local scale. Contrary to the 1964 law, the 1992 law does not imply any obligation to monitor environments but it reinforces the principles of protection of aquatic ecosystems and consultation between water users and stakeholders. The evolution of knowledge is also making it clear that the assessment of river quality must be done by considering the different components of the environment (water and substrate) and the organisms that live in it.
Source
according to AFB

Re-meandering

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Technique of lengthening the layout and reducing the slope of a river to make its morphology more sinuous and thus restore its hydrobiological functions.
Source
according to CELF

Aquatic insect

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Articulated invertebrate animal which have the characteristic of breathing through trachea. Some insects have become aquatic (representing 3% of insects) but have retained this aerial breathing.

Source
according to INRA

Macro-invertebrate

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Animal visible to the naked eye (ie larger than 0.5 mm) that does not have a skeleton, bone or cartilage.

Source
d'après Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie

Good environmental status of marine waters (BEE)

Updated on 06/01/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Bon fonctionnement des écosystèmes (au niveau biologique, physique, chimique et sanitaire) permettant un usage durable du milieu marin. Onze descripteurs qualitatifs (annexe 1 de la DCSMM), communs à tous les États membres de l'Union européenne, servent à définir le bon état écologique : Biodiversité ; Espèces non indigènes ; Espèces commerciales ; Réseaux trophiques ; Eutrophisation ; Intégrité des fonds marins ; changements hydrographiques ; Contaminants ; Questions sanitaires ; Déchets marins ; Bruit sous-marin.

 

 

 

 

Source
D'après OFB

Analysis laboratory

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Organization in charge of carrying out analyses or coordinating analyses made by subcontractors. The laboratories are stakeholders which generally act as providers under contracts (procurement). They produce data according to the specifications attached to the order.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Sample

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

In the strict sense, it is taking a sample (sampling) for analysis or testing. More generally, water withdrawals include all abstractions related to activities generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), drinking water supply, or others (authorized spring of mineral water, production of artificial snow). In this case, the withdrawals are grouped into 3 subtypes corresponding to the affected environment: surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstractions, seawater withdrawals.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Denitrification

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Nitrate (NO3-) reduction to nitrogen gas (N2) by bacteria in anoxic conditions. An anoxic medium has no dissolved oxygen. This phenomenon is different from the consumption of nitrates by plants.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Hydrobiology

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that studies the life of aquatic organisms.
Source
According to AFB

Benthic invertebrate

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organism which populates the bottom of rivers and lives on the surface in the interstices of the substrate. For a great part, they are larvae, insects, molluscs and worms.
Source
According to AFB

Faunal list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Enumeration of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Floristic list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Abundance of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Bioindicator

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A living species which, by its presence or absence, abundance or scarcity, allow to assess the degree of pollution of water or air. (e.g : lichens for the atmosphere, salmonids for rivers, etc.)

Source
d'après dictionnaire Larousse
Sens technique

Specie or group of species whose observed characteristics (occurrence, abundance, biomass, biological traits, etc.) provide an indication of the level of environmental degradation. A bioindicator is therefore subject to measures to indicate the presence or effects of pollutants and thus allows the quality of the environment in which it is collected to be assessed. It can be considered complementary (especially for the spatial distribution of pollution, the characterization of synergies, the gradual pollution, etc.) of networks of physicochemical measurements.

Source
d'après dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences de la nature et de la biodiversité

Fish

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Aquatic vertebrate that breathes through gills and has both limbs represented by fins (pectoral and pelvic). Fish are usually oviparous.

Source
according to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE