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Benefit-transfer method

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method using the results of existing similar studies to estimate the value of an environmental good.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Waterways transport

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mode of transporting goods or people through the national and international waterways networks.
Source
according to the National Chamber of Inland Navigation

Maritime transport/shipping

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mode of transporting goods or people by sea for the most part.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Charges/fees for obstacle on rivers

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount due by any owner of a structure that constitutes a continuous obstacle between the two banks of a watercourse (except for structures forming part of hydroelectric installations subject to the fee for water resource abstraction, or where the height difference is less than 5 m, or located on rivers whose average interannual flow is less than 0.3 m3/s at the right of the obstacle).
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment, the Court of Auditors and Water Agencies

Charges/fees for the protection of aquatic environments

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by fishermen at the issuing of the fishing license. It is levied by the departmental or interdepartmental federations of approved associations for fishing and the protection of aquatic environments, from approved associations of amateur fishermen with gear and nets and from approved associations of professional fishing in freshwater.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Cost-benefit analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Analysis comparing the benefits to all the costs of a given project and of its alternatives, including the impacts that are not submitted to monetary flows (often regarding the environment). The "Cost-Benefit" analysis is a decision-making supporting tool providing objective evidence to the debate. Depending on the value of the benefit/cost ratio, the evaluated project is deemed profitable or not.
Source
According to OECD

Water-related activity

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Economic activity that uses water and services related to water use.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Environmental cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Cost of damage to the environment and ecosystems and also indirectly to those who use them: degradation of the quality of water and soil, treatment costs for additional purification of drinking water imposed on communities, etc. Under the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, we are interested in damage caused by water uses (withdrawals, discharges, developments, etc).
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Environmental Economics

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of the economics that deals, from a theoretical viewpoint, with the relationship between human societies and the environment, particularly in the context of environmental economic policies.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Green Gross Domestic Product

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measurement which subtracts from the usual gross domestic product (GDP) the decrease in the stock of natural resources (e.g. water resources). This accounting method would allow having better knowledge about whether an economic activity increases or lowers national wealth when it uses natural resources. However, economists believe that it could be difficult to establish this new indicator.
Source
According to Jean Gadrey (economist)

Cost recovery

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to this principle, the water users bear as much as possible the costs incurred by their water uses: investment, operating and depreciation costs, environmental costs, and even, if possible, the cost of the resource. This principle is called "cost recovery". On this principle, the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC sets two targets for Member States: by late 2004, the assessment should include the current level of recovery, distinguishing at least three economic sectors (industry, agriculture and households); by 2010, the taking into account of this principle, particularly through water pricing. The Directive requires transparency in the financing of water policy, but it does not set an obligation to full cost recovery on uses.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Service associated with water use

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Service that covers, for households, or any other economic activity: the abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and supply of surface water and groundwater, as well as the collecting and wastewater treatment facilities that subsequently discharge into surface waters.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Environmental tax

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Tax levied by the State to control pollution or the overexploitation of water resources. In the case of pollution, the environmental tax consists in imposing to the polluter a tax per unit of pollutant discharged (which is equal to the marginal cost of pollution abatement). A tax is economically more efficient than a standard because the effort to reduce pollution is naturally distributed at low cost.
Source
According to OECD

Total water cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Total cost of water, including environmental cost, the cost of the resource and the cost of service.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

External cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Costs incurred by an activity at the expense of another activity, of an environment, etc, and uncompensated or not supported by those who generate them. Under the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, we are interested in external environmental costs of services related to water use and more generally water-related activities (withdrawals, discharges, developments, etc); e.g. the costs of exploration and exploitation of new resources due to the pollution of previously exploited groundwater are actually and ultimately supported by the subscribers to drinking water supply services on the price per cubic metre. One of the great practices of environmental economy is to reintegrate externalities into market exchange, externalities are internalized. In other words, environmental degradation (pollution, overexploitation, etc) is included into the prices that otherwise is ignored.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Amenities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Services provided free of charge by nature or the environment to individuals, associated with notions of comfort, convenience, pleasure and knowledge related to a location. For example, the fact of living on the edge of an urban park or staying in a rural area brings benefits in terms of landscape quality, quietness, microclimate, etc.
Source
According to Rhone-Mediterranean and Corsica Water Agency

Ecological service

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Direct or indirect benefit that man obtains from nature. Ecosystems, and more generally biodiversity, support and provide many services, called ecological or ecosystem services, which are sometimes classified as common and/or public good, often vital or useful services to human beings, other species and economic activities. These services include the self-maintaining services, supply services,

Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Amphibian

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.

Source
according to Aquitaine Wildlife Observatory (AWO)

Regional ecological coherence scheme

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Framework Document elaborated in each metropolitan area, by the Regional Council and the regional prefect, in association with local stakeholders, locally developed the green and blue infrastructure. The Regional Ecological Coherence Scheme (SRCE) is to identify biodiversity reservoirs and ecological corridors that link them. It includes an action plan to ensure the preservation and restore ecological continuity identified while taking into account land use planning issues and human activities. The SRCE must also be compatible with the planning documents, such as territorial coherence…

Source
according to IOWater

Aquatic insect

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Articulated invertebrate animal which have the characteristic of breathing through trachea. Some insects have become aquatic (representing 3% of insects) but have retained this aerial breathing.

Source
according to INRA

Aquatic mammal

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Set of aquatic vertebrate animals which have the characteristic of being viviparous: the female lets the young grow in its belly, from which they get out alive. Marine mammals living in the oceans (cetaceans), as well as various freshwater species, such as the European otter, are aquatic mammals. Their mode of operation depends on the aquatic ecosystem where they live.

Source
according to Loire-Bretagne Water Agency

Watercourses fragmentation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Fragmentation of a watercourse into several fragments, due to natural or artificial obstacles (i.e. sills, dams, weirs, etc), which may lead to a disruption into the ecological continuity, preventing the free movement of species or the smooth sediments flow.

Source
according to AFB and IOWater

Lateral continuity of rivers

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water flow from the ridges down to the valley floor.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Living communities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All living organisms (animals and plants including microorganisms) that occupy a given ecosystem. This group of living organisms is characterized by a specific composition and by interdependence phenomena. It occupies an area known as biotope and with the latter makes an ecosystem. A biocenosis changes over time (pioneer phase, intermediate phase and equilibrium phase).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB