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Circular economy

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Organisation of economic and social activities using production, consumption and exchange methods based on eco-design, repair, re-use and recycling, with a view to reducing the volume of the resources used and the damage caused to the environment.
Source
according to the services of the Prime Minister
Sens technique
Economic concept that fits into the framework of sustainable development and whose objective is to produce goods and services while limiting the consumption and wastage of raw materials, water and energy sources. It means using a new economy, which is circular and no longer linear, based on the principle of "closing the life cycle" of products, services, waste, materials, water and energy.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Economic analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Use of analytical methods and economic instruments to help define water management policies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Indeed, the goal is to use the economy at several strong points of the WFD implementation: helping achieve environmental objectives - incentive overall price; at the assessment stage, to assess the economic importance of water uses in the district and…

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Cost-benefit analysis

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Analysis comparing the benefits to all the costs of a given project and of its alternatives, including the impacts that are not submitted to monetary flows (often regarding the environment). The "Cost-Benefit" analysis is a decision-making supporting tool providing objective evidence to the debate. Depending on the value of the benefit/cost ratio, the evaluated project is deemed profitable or not.
Source
According to OECD

Water-related activity

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Economic activity that uses water and services related to water use.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater

Resource cost

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value of lost opportunities due to the choice of the resource allocation to an activity rather than to another when the resource is scarce. This is the difference in benefits between the alternative that generates the greatest benefits and the alternative chosen.
Source
According to François Etner (economist)

Environmental Economics

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of the economics that deals, from a theoretical viewpoint, with the relationship between human societies and the environment, particularly in the context of environmental economic policies.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Polluter-pays principle

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Principle established in the Environmental Code, whereby the costs arising from measures to prevent, reduce and control environmental pollution must be borne by the polluter.
Source
According to the Environmental Code

Green Gross Domestic Product

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measurement which subtracts from the usual gross domestic product (GDP) the decrease in the stock of natural resources (e.g. water resources). This accounting method would allow having better knowledge about whether an economic activity increases or lowers national wealth when it uses natural resources. However, economists believe that it could be difficult to establish this new indicator.
Source
According to Jean Gadrey (economist)

Cost recovery

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
According to this principle, the water users bear as much as possible the costs incurred by their water uses: investment, operating and depreciation costs, environmental costs, and even, if possible, the cost of the resource. This principle is called "cost recovery". On this principle, the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC sets two targets for Member States: by late 2004, the assessment should include the current level of recovery, distinguishing at least three economic sectors (industry, agriculture and households); by 2010, the taking into account of this principle, particularly through water pricing. The Directive requires transparency in the financing of water policy, but it does not set an obligation to full cost recovery on uses.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Service associated with water use

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Service that covers, for households, or any other economic activity: the abstraction, impoundment, storage, treatment and supply of surface water and groundwater, as well as the collecting and wastewater treatment facilities that subsequently discharge into surface waters.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Total water cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Total cost of water, including environmental cost, the cost of the resource and the cost of service.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

External cost

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Costs incurred by an activity at the expense of another activity, of an environment, etc, and uncompensated or not supported by those who generate them. Under the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, we are interested in external environmental costs of services related to water use and more generally water-related activities (withdrawals, discharges, developments, etc); e.g. the costs of exploration and exploitation of new resources due to the pollution of previously exploited groundwater are actually and ultimately supported by the subscribers to drinking water supply services on the price per cubic metre. One of the great practices of environmental economy is to reintegrate externalities into market exchange, externalities are internalized. In other words, environmental degradation (pollution, overexploitation, etc) is included into the prices that otherwise is ignored.
Source
According to Patrice Dumas (economist)

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Green water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water contained in the soil and available for plants.
Source
according to AFB

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

Snow melt

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Transformation of snow into liquid water.
Source
according to UNESCO

Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the flow of water (or other liquids) through pipes, open channels and other structures.
Source
according to UNESCO

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia