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Vegetated discharge area

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique
Space developed between the wastewater treatment plant and the receiving environment of treated wastewater discharges (it is not part of the wastewater treatment plant). The vegetated discharge areas (VDA) are characterised by the use of plants (mostly aquatic but possibly also terrestrial) and their planting close to the treatment plant, in the space remaining after the building of this plant. The VDA is not a wetland as there is no "long presence of natural water". It is also not a grass strip, specific to the mitigation of non-point source pollution (pesticides, fertilisers, sediments, etc.), especially in agriculture.
Source
according to AFB and IRSTEA

Environmental compensation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A set of actions for the environment to counterbalance the damage caused by the implementation of a project, which could not be avoided or limited. Environmental compensation can consist of the protection of natural areas, the restoration, use or long-term management of natural habitats.
Source
according to CELF

Environmental engineerin

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Scientific, technical and practical knowledge to understand and improve interactions between human beings and natural environments.
Source
according to CELF

Ecological engineering

Updated on 24/06/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Project management which, in its implementation and monitoring, applies the principles of ecological engineering and promotes the resilience of ecosystems. Ecological engineering allows in particular the reconstruction of natural environments, the restoration of degraded environments and the optimization of functions provided by ecosystems.

Source
according to French Ecological Engineering Resource Center

Ecological engineering

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Carrying out projects that, in their implementation and monitoring, apply the principles of ecological engineering and enable the resilience of ecosystems. Ecological engineering allows recovering natural environments, restoring degraded environments and optimising the functions provided by ecosystems.
Source
according to CELF

Resilience

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The ability of an ecosystem to withstand and survive alterations or disturbances affecting its structure or functioning, and eventually find a new balance.
Source
according to CELF

Dam removal

Updated on 27/07/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Action de démanteler et détruire un obstacle à la continuité écologique (biologique et sédimentaire) d’un cours d’eau. Par exemple un seuil ou un barrage, édifié sur les cours d’eau.

Source
d'après Jura Natura Services

Headward erosion

Updated on 20/07/2020
Définition
Sens technique

Phénomène d’érosion qui se propage de l’aval vers l’amont d’un cours d’eau : dans le cas d’un déficit sédimentaire sur un tronçon aval, le cours d’eau, pour retrouver sa pente d’équilibre, va prélever en amont les sédiments nécessaires. Cette dynamique de rééquilibrage, souvent causée par la rectification du cours d’eau ou l’extraction trop importante de granulats dans son lit, se poursuit tant que le cours d’eau n’a pas retrouvé une pente d'équilibre, et peut provoquer un phénomène d‘incision. S'oppose à l'érosion progressive.

Source
d'après Jura Natura Services

Ecosystem

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

All living beings (Living communities), non-living elements and climatic and geological conditions (biotope) that are related and interact with each other, and which constitute a basic functional unit in ecology. The ecosystem of an aquatic environment is generally described by: the living beings that are part of it, the nature of the bed and river banks, the characteristics of the catchment area, the hydraulic regime, and the physical-chemical characteristics of water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Restoration

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action of enabling the return to the previous status of an ecosystem degraded by neglect, or the purposive control of human action.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

French Association for Standardization (AFNOR)

Updated on 09/08/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Association governed by the law of 1901, recognized by public utility, composed of nearly 2,500 member companies. Its mission is to lead and coordinate the standards development process and promote their application. AFNOR is the central core of the French standardization system.

Source
According to Organisation internationale de normalisation

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Green water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water contained in the soil and available for plants.
Source
according to AFB

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

Snow melt

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Transformation of snow into liquid water.
Source
according to UNESCO

Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the flow of water (or other liquids) through pipes, open channels and other structures.
Source
according to UNESCO

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis