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Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Analysis

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Methodical review allowing both to identify and quantify the different components of water, but also to evaluate its characteristics and state, according to specific criteria. This review is based on the following of specific protocols adapted to the various controlled parameters.

Source
according to IOWater

Physico-chemical

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Physical and chemical characteristics of water. Inside a water analysis, the observed parameters are quite numerous, and all of these allow to determine the physical-chemical water quality, which determines the maintenance of river biodiversity. These parameters could be for example, temperature, turbidity, concentration of organic matter, mineral, nitrogen, etc.

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Hydrometric station

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measuring station at which data on water in rivers, bodies of water or reservoirs are obtained on one or more of the following elements: water depth, flow rate, sediment transport and deposit, water temperature and other physical properties of water, characteristics of ice cover and chemical properties of water.
Source
According to BRGM

Quality element

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Partial view of the water status, which gives rise to control operations, the results of which are used by an assessment to determine quality indicators. The quality element is described by a parameter or set of parameters (parameter group). The list of quality elements is defined in Annex 5 of the

Source
According to AFB

Control operation

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All on-site measurements, samples and/or analyses, which are performed at a control point for a specified period, in accordance with a control protocol, for assessing a quality element and producing observation data.

Source
According to AFB

Parameter

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Property of a medium or part of it which helps to assess its characteristics and/or quality and/or fitness to some uses. The parameter can firstly be of two types: quantitative and qualitative, and secondly of five kinds: physical, chemical, environmental, microbiological and hydrobiological.
Source
According to AFB

Sample

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

In the strict sense, it is taking a sample (sampling) for analysis or testing. More generally, water withdrawals include all abstractions related to activities generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), drinking water supply, or others (authorized spring of mineral water, production of artificial snow). In this case, the withdrawals are grouped into 3 subtypes corresponding to the affected environment: surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstractions, seawater withdrawals.

Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Green water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water contained in the soil and available for plants.
Source
according to AFB

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

Snow melt

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Transformation of snow into liquid water.
Source
according to UNESCO

Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the flow of water (or other liquids) through pipes, open channels and other structures.
Source
according to UNESCO

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis

Groundwater Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics that mathematically studies the natural gravity flow (of an aquifer) or the induced flow (by drainage or pumping, for example) of free groundwater in permeable media, under the effect of a hydraulic or pressure gradient.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Torrential hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of hydraulics relating to flows in areas with steep slopes.
Source
according to Water torrents & mountain rivers

Hydrometry

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that aims to measure the physical properties of water, especially the flow of surface water and groundwater.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Hygrometry

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The branch of meteorology that characterises the humidity of the air, i.e. the amount of water in gaseous form present in moist air (or in some other gas, in some industrial applications). Hygrometry does not take into account water present in liquid or solid form.
Source
according to Wikipedia