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Oslo Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping from ships and aircraft. The Oslo Commission was responsible for administering the Oslo Convention; in 1992, it combined with the Paris Commission, before the new Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention) entered into force in 1998.
Source
according to OSPAR Commission

Barcelona Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1976 and amended in 1995 to protect the marine and coastal environments of the Mediterranean Sea, while promoting regional and national plans contributing to sustainable development
Source
according to the European Union

London Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 and entered into force in 1975 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Delta

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A type of river mouth characterised by heavy siltation at an elevation very close to that of the water surface and forming a natural marshy plain.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dune

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mound of sand formed by coastal wind. A dune plays a significant role in protecting the lower coasts.
Source
according to IFREMER

Fjord

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of an ancient glacial valley invaded by the sea.
Source
according to IFREMER

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis

Fish stocking

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Action to introduce or reintroduce farmed species, mostly in fresh waters, in order to enrich the fish stocks for recreational or professional fishing or to protect threatened species.

Source
according to Wikipédia

Hydrodynamics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Branch of fluid mechanics which concerns the motion of fluids, whether liquid or gaseous. Hydrodynamics focuses on the properties of fluids, including velocity, viscosity, density, pressure, and temperature, as a function of space and time.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Disposal at sea

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discharge of effluents or pollutants into the sea.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Green algae

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Chlorophyllous aquatic plant having no leaves, no roots, no vessels, no flowers, no seeds, whose main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and b. As the name suggests, they are usually green in color.

Source
d'après dictionnaire Larousse
Sens technique

Algae phylum whose sometimes exclusive major pigment is chlorophyll β, associated with carotene and xanthophyll. Their only reproductive organs are sporocysts and gametocysts. Their plastids elaborate starch as in the Phanerogamous. It includes three classes: Chlorophyceae, Zygophyceae and Charophyceae.

Source
d'après dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences de la nature et de la biodiversité

Algal bloom

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Phenomenon of exceptional proliferation of algae.

Source
d'après Ifremer

Law of 21 April 2004 on WFD transposition

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens réglementaire
Law transposing the 2000 Water Framework Directive (WFD), which harmonises European regulations on water management and introduces the obligation to protect and restore the quality of water and aquatic environments in the European Union. Environmental objectives must be set for all aquatic environments (rivers, lakes, coastal waters - coastal and transitional waters - and groundwater) by 2015: achievement of good water status, no deterioration of resources and reduction or elimination of discharges of hazardous substances. The novelty of the concept of "good status" now relies on the proper functioning of aquatic environments taking into account all components of the environment: water, wildlife, flora and habitats.
Source
according to AFB

Schorre/Salt marsh

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Upper part of a coastal marsh, consisting of solid mud, covered with grass and submerged at high tides.
Source
according to the Robert dictionary
Sens technique
Coastal area corresponding to the upper part of the midlittoral zone and the lower part of the infralittoral zone. The schorre is generally a marsh and colonised by halophytic plants. It is covered only at high tides.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Coast

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Geomorphological entity marking the boundary between continents and oceans.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Barrier beach

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sediment bar, mainly built by the waves, which is parallel or near the coastline and to which it is most often attached at one end. It separates the sea from a quieter coastal area, of the lagoon type, sheltered from the waves.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017 and IOWater

Inlet

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Opening by which a lagoon communicates with the sea.
Source
according to AFB

Coastal sedimentation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The process by which the shore gains on the sea by sediment accumulation (sand, in particular), their volume exceeding the capacity of waves and currents to move them.
Source
according to AFB

Infralittoral zone

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of the coastline always covered by the sea. It extends from the intertidal zone to the open sea, until the depth of the water becomes too great to allow the penetration of light.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Space between the lowest tide limit (low water spring tide mark) and the limit compatible with the life of flowering sea plants (sea grasses) and multicellular algae, about a few tens of meters deep. This zone is colonised by organisms that require continuous immersion.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Slikken/Tidal flat

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of the coastal ecosystems located in the intertidal zone and consists of mudflats uncovered at low tide.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017 and IOWater

Nature based Solutions (NbS)

Updated on 21/09/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Les Solutions fondées sur la Nature (SfN) sont les actions qui s’appuient sur les écosystèmes afin de relever les défis globaux comme la lutte contre les changements climatiques, la gestion des risques naturels (inondations, sécheresse, submersion marine), la santé, l’accès à l’eau, la sécurité alimentaire…

Les SfN visent à protéger, restaurer et gérer de manière durable les écosystèmes : la préservation des forêts, les rivières en bon état, la restauration et  le fonctionnement des zones humides, tout concourt à agir au plus près du terrain (actions locales pour un objectif global). Il est impératif que la société adopte une combinaison de solutions inspirées par la  nature, dérivées de la nature et fondées sur la nature : Il s'agit bien d'intérêt mutuel. La nature y gagne, et les territoires qui prennent ainsi soin des cycles naturels, du bon état des milieux ont aussi tout à y gagner.

En effet, des écosystèmes sains, résilients, fonctionnels et diversifiés fournissent de nombreux services écosystémiques et permettent donc le développement de solutions au bénéfice de nos sociétés et de la biodiversité, dans le cadre des changements globaux.

Source
d'après UICN, FNE

Directive on the conservation of wild birds

Updated on 06/01/2021
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Directive 2009/147/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 30 novembre 2009 concernant la conservation des oiseaux sauvages. Elle vise la conservation de tous les oiseaux sauvages dans l’Union européenne (UE) en fixant des règles pour leur protection, leur conservation, leur gestion et leur régulation. Elle s’applique aux oiseaux ainsi qu’à leurs œufs, à leurs nids et à leurs habitats. Elle codifie la directive adoptée initialement en 1979 (directive 79/409/CEE).
La directive 2009/147/CE a été modifiée en 2019 par le règlement (UE) 2019/1010, lequel simplifie, tout en s’y conformant, les obligations de déclaration dans le domaine du droit de l’environnement.

Source
d'après Eur-lex

Integrated Maritime Policy (PMI)

Updated on 12/01/2021
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Politique de l’Union dont l’objectif est de favoriser une prise de décision coordonnée et cohérente pour optimiser le développement durable, la croissance économique et la cohésion sociale des États membres, notamment des régions côtières, insulaires et ultrapériphériques de l’Union, ainsi que des secteurs maritimes, grâce à des politiques cohérentes dans le domaine maritime et à la coopération internationale en la matière. (cf. Directive cadre pour la planification de l'espace maritime -DCPEM)

Source
d'après Eur-lex

Mediterranean poly-euhaline lagoons

Updated on 28/04/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Lagune dont la salinité moyenne annuelle est supérieure à 18 PSU.

Source
d'après OFB et Ifremer

Oligo-mesohaline lagoon

Updated on 28/04/2021
Définition
Sens technique

Lagune dont la salinité moyenne annuelle est située entre 0,5 et 5 PSU (oligo) et entre 5 - 18 PSU (méso).

Source
d'après OFB et Ifremer