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Desertification

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Decrease or disappearance of land due to soil erosion by wind or water.
Source
according to ADEME

Natural risk

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Threat of a dangerous event caused by a natural phenomenon, called hazard, having damaging, unforeseen or badly prevented effects on developments, structures and people, the stakes being more or less serious, even catastrophic, according to their vulnerability. A natural risk is the confrontation between a hazard of natural origin and human, economic or environmental stakes.
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of the-Loire region

Drought

Updated on 18/03/2020
Définition
Sens commun

State of the soil or of an environment resulting from a lack of rain. It generally occurs when the amount of rain is significantly lower than seasonal norms, and this over a fairly long period.

Source
According to International Office for Water

Hazard-prone area

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Area exposed or that could be exposed to hazards or potentially dangerous events (flood, pollution, natural disaster, industrial accident) and where human, economic or environmental issues are involved.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Meteorological drought

Updated on 18/03/2020
Définition
Sens commun

A type of drought corresponding to a pronounced and prolonged deficit of precipitation.

Source
according to Météo France

Soil drought

Updated on 18/03/2020
Définition
Sens commun

A type of drought characterized by a water deficit in the surface soils (between 1 and 2 m deep), sufficient to alter the good development of vegetation.

Source
according to Météo France

Hydrological drought

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Type of drought affecting water levels in environments: lakes, rivers or groundwater show abnormally low levels. It depends on precipitation but also on the state of the soil affecting runoff and infiltration.

Source
according to Météo France

Nature based Solutions (NbS)

Updated on 21/09/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Les Solutions fondées sur la Nature (SfN) sont les actions qui s’appuient sur les écosystèmes afin de relever les défis globaux comme la lutte contre les changements climatiques, la gestion des risques naturels (inondations, sécheresse, submersion marine), la santé, l’accès à l’eau, la sécurité alimentaire…

Les SfN visent à protéger, restaurer et gérer de manière durable les écosystèmes : la préservation des forêts, les rivières en bon état, la restauration et  le fonctionnement des zones humides, tout concourt à agir au plus près du terrain (actions locales pour un objectif global). Il est impératif que la société adopte une combinaison de solutions inspirées par la  nature, dérivées de la nature et fondées sur la nature : Il s'agit bien d'intérêt mutuel. La nature y gagne, et les territoires qui prennent ainsi soin des cycles naturels, du bon état des milieux ont aussi tout à y gagner.

En effet, des écosystèmes sains, résilients, fonctionnels et diversifiés fournissent de nombreux services écosystémiques et permettent donc le développement de solutions au bénéfice de nos sociétés et de la biodiversité, dans le cadre des changements globaux.

Source
d'après UICN, FNE

Hazard

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Nature, occurrence, intensity and duration of a threatening phenomenon.
Source
According to SOeS

Vulnerability

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Fragility and susceptibility when facing a given hazard or a given pressure.
Source
According to SOeS

Critical low flow

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Low flow value below which the supply of drinking water for essential needs for human and animal life, and for the survival of the species found in the environment, are endangered. At this low-flow level, all possible measures to restrict consumption and

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Low-flow level

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Period of lowest water levels in streams and groundwater (usually summer for rainfall regimes).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB
Sens technique

Exceptionally low flow period of a watercourse, or exacerbation of its low water (sometimes assimilated to low seasonal flows). Low water is therefore considered to be a limited period in the year when the flows drop lower than a statistically calculated threshold value, function of each stream.

Source
According to AFB

Risk Exposure Plan

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Plan for delimiting, at municipal or inter-municipal level, areas exposed to predictable natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, avalanches or ground movements. The Risk Exposure Plan (REP) sets out the appropriate measures to prevent
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Risk

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measuring the effects of a hazard in an area. Risk significance therefore depends on the hazard but also on exposed challenges (populations, property and the environment) and on their vulnerability. There is no risk when the area exposed to a hazard is devoid of human, material and environmental challenges.
Source
According to SOeS

Water deficit

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Cumulative difference between potential evapotranspiration (soil evaporation and transpiration from vegetation) and precipitation during a certain period in which the precipitation is the smaller of the two.
Source
According to Poitou-Charentes Regional Council

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Green water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water contained in the soil and available for plants.
Source
according to AFB