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Water self cleaning/ water assimilative capacity

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Biological process by which water in natural environments (rivers, wetlands, lakes, etc.) cleans itself when the amount of pollutants discharged into it is not too significant. Self-cleaning is the result of the action of organisms living in water.
Source
according to AFB

Pollution basin

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Storm basin intended to retain the pollution of the first waters during periods of heavy rain.
Source
according to FNDAE

Water pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution of water degrading its intrinsic qualities, disrupting aquatic life and making its use dangerous for human beings and animals. This contamination results from the presence of pollutants in sufficient quantity to be harmful.
Source
according to ADEME

Oslo Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping from ships and aircraft. The Oslo Commission was responsible for administering the Oslo Convention; in 1992, it combined with the Paris Commission, before the new Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention) entered into force in 1998.
Source
according to OSPAR Commission

London Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
International Convention signed in 1972 and entered into force in 1975 for the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Nitrogen cycle

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All of the processes and conversions of nitrogen, into different forms, in the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere (nitrous oxide, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen).

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Soil decontamination

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to extract or destroy all or part of the pollutants present in a soil.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Soil erosion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Thinning of the topsoil of a field as a result of the natural erosive forces of water and wind, or as a result of agricultural activities such as tillage. Soil erosion lowers the productivity of the land and contributes to the pollution of adjacent rivers, wetlands and lakes.
Source
according to Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

Fertilisation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Input of matters (fertiliser) to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
All techniques concerning the input of matters intended to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil. One usually distinguishes soil additives, basic and organic minerals, which affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, from fertilisers, which are used to improve the nutrition of crops and contain major (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), secondary (sulphur, magnesium, calcium and sodium) and minor nutrients (micro or trace elements).
Source
according to Encyclopaedia universalis

Fungicide

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pesticide used to control, repel or destroy fungi.
Source
according to Lenntech

Herbicide / weed killer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pesticide used to control, repel or destroy unwanted plants.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Lichen

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organism generated by symbiotic association between a mushroom (which brings water and mineral salts) and algae (which creates, by photosynthesis, different organic compounds that it yields in part to the mushroom). Lichens are able to withstand extreme weather conditions and are able to accumulate mineral compounds well beyond their own needs. As a result, they are often used as pollution indicators.
Source
according to IFREMER

slurry/liquid manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mixture of farm animal excreta containing a large quantity of water, kept in covered pits to then serve as fertiliser.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Agricultural pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution resulting from agricultural activities. There are two types of agricultural pollution: point source pollution, which may be the consequence of accidental handling of products or pollution from livestock buildings; non-point source pollution, resulting from poor fertilisation practices or excessive phytosanitary treatments. Agricultural pollution can also result from poor land management and spatial and plot planning that no longer limits erosion or pollutant transfers on a catchment area scale.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Atmospheric pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Environmental pollution by a chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. For example, appliances used for combustion in homes, motor vehicles, industries and forest fires are frequent sources of air pollution.
Source
according to WHO

Domestic/indoor pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution resulting from wastewater discharged from households (showers, toilets, kitchen, etc.).
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Industrial pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution directly induced by industrial activity, when it introduces biological, physical (including radiation), chemical or organic allogenic factors, affecting more or less significantly the functioning of ecosystems.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Metal pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Environmental contamination caused by the excessive amount of various metals, such as aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, zinc, etc., or even of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury or lead, that are more toxic than the previous ones.
Source
according to CNRS

Rainwater pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution of rainwater. If rainwater is naturally polluted (drops of water can only reach a sufficient size to fall to the ground when there are solid particles in the atmosphere to initiate the nucleation process, part of the urban air pollutants is therefore driven to the ground during rainy periods), the pollutant concentrations are however extremely low, and in most situations, rainwater is of drinking water quality when it reaches the ground. The most common limiting factor is pH (acid rain), but this acidity is very quickly buffered by the materials on which water flows or passes through.
Source
according to Greater Lyon Urban Community

Seasonal pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution occurring seasonally, mainly as a result of specific human activities (road salting in winter, soil improvement, tourism...).
Source
according to the Regional Directorate for the Environment, Planning and Housing (DREAL) of Rhône-Alpes

Pollutant transfer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Migration of a polluting substance within an environment or between different environments. Pollutant transfer is influenced by many factors, such as the intrinsic chemical properties of pollutants and the nature of the environment in which they are.
Source
according to BRGM

Aquifer vulnerability

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Risk of infiltration of pollutants from the surface, through the soil and unsaturated zone. The vulnerability of aquifers is intrinsic: it depends on the topographic (ground slope), pedological (permeability), geological context (permeability, thickness). A confined aquifer, covered by a low permeability formation (often clays) is not very vulnerable as compared to an unconfined aquifer.
Source
according to BRGM

Charges/fees for pollution from non-domestic sources

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by the industrialists according to the volume of the discharged pollution. This fee aims to encourage companies and manufacturers to reduce their discharges. The charge rates are set according to the pollutant elements and can be modulated by zone, to take into account the status of the natural environment.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for non-point source pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by producers of plant protection products. This fee takes into account the level of toxicity and dangerousness of substances used in agricultural and gardening activities. It encourages users to choose less polluting products.
Source
according to the Water Agencies

Charges/fees for the protection of aquatic environments

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by fishermen at the issuing of the fishing license. It is levied by the departmental or interdepartmental federations of approved associations for fishing and the protection of aquatic environments, from approved associations of amateur fishermen with gear and nets and from approved associations of professional fishing in freshwater.
Source
according to the Water Agencies