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Self-maintaining service

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Service necessary for producing all the other services (regulation, supply, cultural services), their disturbance only affecting man indirectly or in the long term.
Source
According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA)

Benefit-transfer method

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Method using the results of existing similar studies to estimate the value of an environmental good.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment

Infrastructure-asset management of public water and sanitation services

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

The ability of a manager of a public water supply and sanitation service to know his technical assets (drinking water production plants, reservoirs, network systems, connections, etc), to plan the best investments, to provide the financial resources needed for the rehabilitation and replacement of structures and respond efficiently to his heritage, is at the core of the analysis of the economic sustainability of water services. Patrimonial management (property management, asset management) is a process whereby a public water utility can direct, control and optimize the supply, maintenance and decommissioning of assets related to infrastructure, including costs for specified performance during their life cycle.

Source
According to AFB, AgroParisTech and ASTEE

Public water supply and sanitation services

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Municipal public utility in charge of conveying drinking water to the consumer's tap and collecting and treating wastewater and stormwater before returning them to the natural environment. The 30,000 French public water supply and sanitation services are also in charge of the relations with the consumer: information, demand management, billing, etc. The "drinking water supply" service includes the abstraction of water from the natural environment, its potabilization and supply. The "sanitation" service includes the collection, conveyance and treatment of wastewater and the disposal or reuse of sludge…

Source
According to the Ministries of the Environment and Health and AFB

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Water column

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Volume of water between the bottom and the surface of a sea, ocean, river or lake.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Concept used in ecology for aquatic and marine environments to describe the physical (temperature, salinity, penetration of light) and chemical characteristics (pH, dissolved oxygen content, nutrients, trace metals...) of seawater, at different depths, for a given geographical point. The water column extends from the water surface to the bottom of rivers,
Source
according to IFREMER

Alevin

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Young fish living on its yolk reserves or having not yet acquired its adult form.

Source
according to Larousse dictionary

Hatching/Hatchery

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Repopulation of fresh water by introducing fry, practiced by people for fishing or fish farming.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Algae

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Unicellular or pluricellular photosynthetic organism usually living in an aquatic environment.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Ammonification

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Production of ammonia from organic nitrogen by bacteria or decomposer fungi.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Amphibian

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.

Source
according to Aquitaine Wildlife Observatory (AWO)

Needle dam/weir

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dam consisting of a succession of solid frames (foldable metal frames) connected by a bridge and each supporting a movable part - the needle - which can be raised or lowered.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Earth dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An embankment, formed of compact earth, built across the bed of a river to create a water reservoir. This is the simplest and oldest type of dam. Its slopes must be soft enough to ensure stability and the earth must be sufficiently impermeable (e.g. clay).
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydropower dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A structure built on a watercourse for creating a water reservoir to ensure a constant production of electricity. The impounded water of the reservoir is conveyed by pipes to the power plant.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Gravity dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A rather old dam, made of a block of solid material (concrete or masonry) heavy enough to withstand the water pressure.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Impoundment dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure built for the storage of water for replenishing low water levels or supplying channels.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Underground dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A groundwater impoundment structure built across underground water channels. The underground dams are built in the sub-soil. They store water in geological formations, retain groundwater and require pumping facilities to make water usable.
Source
according to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment

Arch dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Dam with a complex design, which is thin and resistant to the hydraulic pressure by bracing the rocky sides of a valley. These dams are particularly suitable for narrow valleys.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company

Cetacean

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic mammal with front flippers and a horizontal caudal fin – the tail -. For example, whales, sperm whales and dolphins are cetaceans
Source
according to the Robert dictionary

Berne Convention

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats signed in 1979 and entered into force in 1982. For the Member States of the European Union, the so-called Birds and Habitats Directives are the framework in which the provisions of the Berne Convention apply. The habitat requirements are met by the designation of protected areas, known as Natura 2000.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Meander cutoff

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A cutoff that occurs when two knees of the same meander meet. The cutoff then causes the abandonment of the meander to form a new channel.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Crustacean

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Arthropods with a body made up of segments linked to each other by a joint membrane and wearing a pair of jointed appendix. They can be distinguished from other arthropods by the presence of two pairs of antennae. They live in freshwater, marine waters or in terrestrial environments. They can be mobile or fixed to a support.

Source
According to Ifremer

Biological cycle

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Regularly repetitive succession of the same series of events in the existence of a living being, a breeding line or the whole of the living world.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary