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Public water supply and sanitation services

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Municipal public utility in charge of conveying drinking water to the consumer's tap and collecting and treating wastewater and stormwater before returning them to the natural environment. The 30,000 French public water supply and sanitation services are also in charge of the relations with the consumer: information, demand management, billing, etc. The "drinking water supply" service includes the abstraction of water from the natural environment, its potabilization and supply. The "sanitation" service includes the collection, conveyance and treatment of wastewater and the disposal or reuse of sludge…

Source
According to the Ministries of the Environment and Health and AFB

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Discharge authorisation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Administrative act decided by the community, owner of a sanitation facility, to authorise an exceptional water discharge. This authorisation is mandatory for any connection of an industrial effluent to a community sewerage network. It obligatorily sets the characteristics of the effluents to be complied with, the duration of the authorisation and the monitoring methods to be used.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Needle dam/weir

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dam consisting of a succession of solid frames (foldable metal frames) connected by a bridge and each supporting a movable part - the needle - which can be raised or lowered.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Earth dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An embankment, formed of compact earth, built across the bed of a river to create a water reservoir. This is the simplest and oldest type of dam. Its slopes must be soft enough to ensure stability and the earth must be sufficiently impermeable (e.g. clay).
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydropower dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A structure built on a watercourse for creating a water reservoir to ensure a constant production of electricity. The impounded water of the reservoir is conveyed by pipes to the power plant.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Gravity dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A rather old dam, made of a block of solid material (concrete or masonry) heavy enough to withstand the water pressure.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Impoundment dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure built for the storage of water for replenishing low water levels or supplying channels.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Underground dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A groundwater impoundment structure built across underground water channels. The underground dams are built in the sub-soil. They store water in geological formations, retain groundwater and require pumping facilities to make water usable.
Source
according to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment

Arch dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Dam with a complex design, which is thin and resistant to the hydraulic pressure by bracing the rocky sides of a valley. These dams are particularly suitable for narrow valleys.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Pollution basin

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Storm basin intended to retain the pollution of the first waters during periods of heavy rain.
Source
according to FNDAE

Retention basin

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A storm management basin for the temporary storage of runoff water to protect homes and structures during periods of heavy rain.
Source
according to the Intermunicipal Sanitation Syndicate of the Enghien-les-Bains region

Water balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio between inflows to (e.g. precipitation, runoff, capillary rise) and outflows (e.g. transpiration or evaporation) from a given system over a given time interval, which gives the variation in water storage. The water balance allows knowing the soil water storage capacity, potentially usable for different purposes (agriculture or other).
Source
according to INRA and Aquitaine Chamber of Agriculture

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Activated sludge

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Biomass of microorganisms used for treating wastewater from their pollutants (mainly organic matter). Microorganisms are free, suspended in the wastewater, kept inside an aeration tank, and feed on the pollutants. Then, the separation of activated sludge and water occurs in a clarifier: a part of the sludge is put back into the aeration tanks, while the other part (corresponding to the increase of stock) is discharged.

Source
According to FNDAE

Water treatment sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sludge resulting from the treatment of water.
Source
according to the Seine-Normandy Water Agency

Digested sludg

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Also called anaerobic sludge, it results from a biological stabilisation process, reducing the amount of organic matter in the waste, through anaerobic digestion (absence of oxygen) in a digester.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Primary/green sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Sludge resulting from the primary treatment by clarifier.
Source
according to the eco-enterprise development centre

Hydroxide sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Sediment resulting from the physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater. Hydroxide sludge, generated by surface treatment of metal parts, is considered to be hazardous.
Source
according to the South-Pyrenean Waste Observatory

Mixed sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
This sludge is usually a mixture of primary sludge and biological sludge.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Primary sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
It includes settleable solids removed during primary wastewater treatment in clarifiers. Primary sludge is rich in mineral matter.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company