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Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Needle dam/weir

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Dam consisting of a succession of solid frames (foldable metal frames) connected by a bridge and each supporting a movable part - the needle - which can be raised or lowered.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Earth dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
An embankment, formed of compact earth, built across the bed of a river to create a water reservoir. This is the simplest and oldest type of dam. Its slopes must be soft enough to ensure stability and the earth must be sufficiently impermeable (e.g. clay).
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydropower dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A structure built on a watercourse for creating a water reservoir to ensure a constant production of electricity. The impounded water of the reservoir is conveyed by pipes to the power plant.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Gravity dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A rather old dam, made of a block of solid material (concrete or masonry) heavy enough to withstand the water pressure.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Impoundment dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Structure built for the storage of water for replenishing low water levels or supplying channels.
Source
according to Voies navigables de France (French Waterways)

Underground dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A groundwater impoundment structure built across underground water channels. The underground dams are built in the sub-soil. They store water in geological formations, retain groundwater and require pumping facilities to make water usable.
Source
according to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment

Arch dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Dam with a complex design, which is thin and resistant to the hydraulic pressure by bracing the rocky sides of a valley. These dams are particularly suitable for narrow valleys.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company

Meander cutoff

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A cutoff that occurs when two knees of the same meander meet. The cutoff then causes the abandonment of the meander to form a new channel.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Delta

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A type of river mouth characterised by heavy siltation at an elevation very close to that of the water surface and forming a natural marshy plain.
Source
according to IFREMER

River diversion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Temporary or definitive man-made change in the layout of a watercourse by totally or partially diverting the water flow.
Source
according to AFB and Réseau ferré de France (French railway network)

Demesnial water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a river owned and maintained by a national governmental body. This maintenance can be delegated to the regions or departments.
Source
according to French private forestry

Non-demesnial water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Part of a river not owned by a national governmental body. Watercourses that are neither navigable nor floatable, brooks, torrents or small streams are considered to be private.
Source
according to French private forestry

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Pruning

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The process of cutting off, in a selective manner, branches from a tree to orient or limit its growth.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Energy produced by the movement of water in all its forms (waterfall, watercourse, marine current, tide, wave). This movement can be directly used, e.g. with a watermill, or more commonly be converted, for example, into electricity in a hydroelectric plant.
Source
according to Wikipedia

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Torrential hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of hydraulics relating to flows in areas with steep slopes.
Source
according to Water torrents & mountain rivers

Hydrometry

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Science that aims to measure the physical properties of water, especially the flow of surface water and groundwater.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

River morphology

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Study of the shape of rivers.
Source
according to AFB

Flood travel

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Travel of rising water levels from upstream to downstream of a watercourse.
Source
according to IRSTEA

Fish stocking

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Action to introduce or reintroduce farmed species, mostly in fresh waters, in order to enrich the fish stocks for recreational or professional fishing or to protect threatened species.

Source
according to Wikipédia

Groundwater-fed river

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Stream whose water comes mainly from the aquifer it drains.
Source
according to French National Committee of Hydrological Sciences