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Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Integrated farming/agriculture

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Agricultural practice that applies to the production that takes into account environmental protection, health and animal welfare. In France, the concept is regulated by public authorities (ministries in charge of agriculture and ecology) and the promotion is made by the FARRE network (forum of integrated farming respectful of the environment). Certification is awarded to farmers who respect the principles of sustainable agriculture.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Agronomy

Updated on 11/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Sciences and techniques that aim at understanding the relationships between crops, environments and agricultural techniques, and at improving agriculture.

Source
according to the French Association of Agronomy

Water balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio between inflows to (e.g. precipitation, runoff, capillary rise) and outflows (e.g. transpiration or evaporation) from a given system over a given time interval, which gives the variation in water storage. The water balance allows knowing the soil water storage capacity, potentially usable for different purposes (agriculture or other).
Source
according to INRA and Aquitaine Chamber of Agriculture

Nitrogen cycle

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All of the processes and conversions of nitrogen, into different forms, in the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere (nitrous oxide, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen).

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Weed control

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Use of mechanical means (tillage, hoeing, weeding) or chemical treatments (weed killers) to eliminate unwanted plant species.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Eau blanche – milky water

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Wastewater produced during the manufacture of paper or water from the cleaning of premises and equipment of milking parlours, dairies or cheese factories.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Land application of sewage sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of spreading organic matter-laden wastewater over a surface, to treat it by percolation into the soil while feeding soils poor in organic matter.
Source
according to IFREMER

Land application of animal manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The spreading of animal excreta on a surface, so as to fertilise it. In animal excreta, cattle effluents are largely dominant and are mainly in the form of manure. Slurry concerns part of the cattle effluent and almost all pig breeding. Poultry droppings, whose fertilising effect is powerful, can locally represent significant tonnages.
Source
according to IFREMER and ADEME

Soil erosion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Thinning of the topsoil of a field as a result of the natural erosive forces of water and wind, or as a result of agricultural activities such as tillage. Soil erosion lowers the productivity of the land and contributes to the pollution of adjacent rivers, wetlands and lakes.
Source
according to Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

Farm

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Place where an agricultural activity occurs (livestock or crops).

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

Economic and production unit that simultaneously meets three conditions: the unit has an agricultural activity, reaches or exceeds a certain dimension (surface area, number of animals, production...) and is under day-to-day and independent management.

Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture
Sens réglementaire

According to European Regulation (EU) 2018/1091 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 concerning integrated statistics on agricultural holdings, an agricultural holding is an individual unit, from a technical and economic point of view, which has a management and carrying out economic activities in the field of agriculture, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1893/2006, falling within groups A.01.1, A.01.2, A.01.3, A.01.4, A.01.5 or the "maintenance of agricultural land under good agricultural and environmental conditions" of group A.01.6 on the economic territory of the Union, as a primary or secondary activity. For activities in class A.01.49, only the following activities are included: "breeding of semi-domestic animals or other live animals" (except for the breeding of insects) and "beekeeping and production of honey and beeswax."

Source
according to the European Parliament

Fertilisation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Input of matters (fertiliser) to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
All techniques concerning the input of matters intended to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil. One usually distinguishes soil additives, basic and organic minerals, which affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, from fertilisers, which are used to improve the nutrition of crops and contain major (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), secondary (sulphur, magnesium, calcium and sodium) and minor nutrients (micro or trace elements).
Source
according to Encyclopaedia universalis

Fungicide

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pesticide used to control, repel or destroy fungi.
Source
according to Lenntech

Herbicide / weed killer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pesticide used to control, repel or destroy unwanted plants.
Source
according to Wikipedia

slurry/liquid manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Mixture of farm animal excreta containing a large quantity of water, kept in covered pits to then serve as fertiliser.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Spreading equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Agricultural equipment used to spread various products on an agricultural surface.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Irrigation equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Agricultural equipment used to provide water (and possibly other substances) to cultivated plants.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Drainage equipment

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Equipment used to accelerate the natural or artificial evacuation, by gravity or by pumping, of surface or ground water.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation and IOWater

Micro-irrigation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A kind of irrigation in which water is supplied under low pressure near the foot of plants, using pipes pierced with small holes.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Discharge standard

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Value constituting a legal reference that cannot be exceeded during a discharge into to the environment.
Source
according to Downstream Seine Interdepartmental Water Syndicate

Water odour

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Odour that emerges from water, usually due to a multitude of different molecules, in very low concentrations, mixed with the air that is breathed. For example, open sewers, discharges from an organic chemical industry (pharmacies, insecticides), wastewater treatment, intensive livestock farming (pigs, cattle, poultry or other) or land application (slurries, sewage sludge) can be a source of olfactory nuisance.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Agricultural pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Pollution resulting from agricultural activities. There are two types of agricultural pollution: point source pollution, which may be the consequence of accidental handling of products or pollution from livestock buildings; non-point source pollution, resulting from poor fertilisation practices or excessive phytosanitary treatments. Agricultural pollution can also result from poor land management and spatial and plot planning that no longer limits erosion or pollutant transfers on a catchment area scale.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency

Sludge recycling

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Reuse of sewage sludge, especially in agriculture (composting, land application) or in industry (cement, for example).
Source
according to the eco-enterprise development centre

Wastewater re-use

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Use of wastewater, in agriculture for example, after passing through the treatment plant, instead of being discharged into watercourses, bodies of water or coastal waters. This re-use allows, on the one hand, mobilising an additional water resource and, on the other, protecting the water receiving the treated wastewater.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Charges/fees for non-point source pollution

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Amount of money paid by producers of plant protection products. This fee takes into account the level of toxicity and dangerousness of substances used in agricultural and gardening activities. It encourages users to choose less polluting products.
Source
according to the Water Agencies