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Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company

Sludge incineration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Heat treatment of sewage sludge used as an energy source. Incineration is preferred when sludge composting or land application cannot be considered.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and SIAAP

Marine turbine

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Submerged turbine that uses the energy of marine currents, and sometimes fluvial, to produce electricity.
Source
according to CELF

Wastewater heat recovery unit

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchanger used to partially recover the thermal energy of wastewater.
Source
according to CELF

Water utilization

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All services and activities having a significant impact on water status. Services related to the use of water are water uses characterized by the existence of structures for abstraction, storage, treatment or discharge. They have a fixed asset.
Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Water release by a dam

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Controlled evacuation of part of the water of a dam reservoir (low-flow period, security, energy production, etc.).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Water use

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Utilization of water by human beings (domestic, industrial, agricultural, recreational, cultural uses of drinking water).
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Tidal power

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Tidal energy that can be captured by using the tidal currents to turn wheels or turbines. Example from the Middle Ages include existing tidal mills, but also the Rance tidal power plant in Ille-et-Vilaine.
Source
According to Ifremer

Dam

Updated on 16/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Structure that crosses more than the low-water channel of a permanent or intermittent watercourse or a thalweg. We can also say that it bars up a river cachtment area. But a dam can be outside a watercourse. The reservoir it makes upstream is gravity fed by the river basin waters. The body of a dam can be made of earth, masonry, concrete, wood, metal, etc. There are several types of dams, according to their function: hydropower dam, reservoir dam, dam for pollution control, dam for navigation.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Stagnant water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Still water in parts of a river, lake or other aquatic environment.
Source
according to UNESCO

Green water

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water contained in the soil and available for plants.
Source
according to AFB

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

Snow melt

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Transformation of snow into liquid water.
Source
according to UNESCO

Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the flow of water (or other liquids) through pipes, open channels and other structures.
Source
according to UNESCO

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis

Groundwater Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics that mathematically studies the natural gravity flow (of an aquifer) or the induced flow (by drainage or pumping, for example) of free groundwater in permeable media, under the effect of a hydraulic or pressure gradient.
Source
according to Wikipedia