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Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Integrated farming/agriculture

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Agricultural practice that applies to the production that takes into account environmental protection, health and animal welfare. In France, the concept is regulated by public authorities (ministries in charge of agriculture and ecology) and the promotion is made by the FARRE network (forum of integrated farming respectful of the environment). Certification is awarded to farmers who respect the principles of sustainable agriculture.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Agronomy

Updated on 11/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Sciences and techniques that aim at understanding the relationships between crops, environments and agricultural techniques, and at improving agriculture.

Source
according to the French Association of Agronomy

Hydropower dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A structure built on a watercourse for creating a water reservoir to ensure a constant production of electricity. The impounded water of the reservoir is conveyed by pipes to the power plant.
Source
according to the French Committee of Dams and Reservoirs

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Nuclear power plant

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A plant that generates electricity by using the heat released by the nuclear fuel. This heat heats water and produces steam which drives turbines and consequently alternators. In normal operation, a plant releases radioactive liquids and gas, which can be found in aquatic environments, after treatment of water used for cooling installations (demineralisation, chlorination). On the other hand, the water used in the cooling circuits is hot when it is discharged into the river or the sea, which again can alter the functioning of the ecosystems.
Source
according to AFB and the French Nuclear Energy Company

Snowmaking

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Technique used for producing snow by projecting, into a negative temperature air, tiny droplets of water that will freeze before falling back to the ground.
Source
according to METEO FRANCE and IOWater

Land application of sewage sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of spreading organic matter-laden wastewater over a surface, to treat it by percolation into the soil while feeding soils poor in organic matter.
Source
according to IFREMER

Land application of animal manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The spreading of animal excreta on a surface, so as to fertilise it. In animal excreta, cattle effluents are largely dominant and are mainly in the form of manure. Slurry concerns part of the cattle effluent and almost all pig breeding. Poultry droppings, whose fertilising effect is powerful, can locally represent significant tonnages.
Source
according to IFREMER and ADEME

Farm

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Place where an agricultural activity occurs (livestock or crops).

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

Economic and production unit that simultaneously meets three conditions: the unit has an agricultural activity, reaches or exceeds a certain dimension (surface area, number of animals, production...) and is under day-to-day and independent management.

Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture
Sens réglementaire

According to European Regulation (EU) 2018/1091 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 concerning integrated statistics on agricultural holdings, an agricultural holding is an individual unit, from a technical and economic point of view, which has a management and carrying out economic activities in the field of agriculture, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1893/2006, falling within groups A.01.1, A.01.2, A.01.3, A.01.4, A.01.5 or the "maintenance of agricultural land under good agricultural and environmental conditions" of group A.01.6 on the economic territory of the Union, as a primary or secondary activity. For activities in class A.01.49, only the following activities are included: "breeding of semi-domestic animals or other live animals" (except for the breeding of insects) and "beekeeping and production of honey and beeswax."

Source
according to the European Parliament

Fertilisation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Input of matters (fertiliser) to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
All techniques concerning the input of matters intended to maintain or increase the fertility of a soil. One usually distinguishes soil additives, basic and organic minerals, which affect the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, from fertilisers, which are used to improve the nutrition of crops and contain major (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), secondary (sulphur, magnesium, calcium and sodium) and minor nutrients (micro or trace elements).
Source
according to Encyclopaedia universalis

Public drinking water fountain

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fountain belonging to the municipal public domain, under municipal management.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Sludge incineration

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Heat treatment of sewage sludge used as an energy source. Incineration is preferred when sludge composting or land application cannot be considered.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and SIAAP

Micro-irrigation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
A kind of irrigation in which water is supplied under low pressure near the foot of plants, using pipes pierced with small holes.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Pump

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Device for rising up, back flowing or compressing fluids.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary

Bridge

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Structure linking two points separated by a stream, a valley or any other obstacle.
Source
according to the Robert dictionary and IOWater

Sludge recycling

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Reuse of sewage sludge, especially in agriculture (composting, land application) or in industry (cement, for example).
Source
according to the eco-enterprise development centre

Discharge into a sewer

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to dispose of, discharge or allow the flow of runoff water (mainly from rainfall) and wastewater (produced by human activities) into the sewers of a city.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and City of Paris

Salmon/Trout farming

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Salmonid farming (mainly trout and salmon). Fragile and very demanding, salmonids prefer fresh, pure and oxygen-rich waters. Salmon-trout farming requires a lot of technicality and a permanent control to ensure the good health and the optimal comfort of the fish. The production sites (basins) are mostly located on the river upstream of the catchment area or in the headwaters. Salmon farming is a branch of fish farming, which is practiced in both fresh and salt water.
Source
according to the Association for the Development of Aquaculture and Professional Fishing

Man made lake

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Large expanse of water surrounded by land, created or enlarged by man, where it is enough that the depth, surface area or volume are sufficient to cause sediment deposit or stratification.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Crop rotation

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Technique used in agriculture and gardening that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility and increase yields. Crop rotation is when different crops follow each other in a certain order on the same plot, the same succession of crops being reproduced over time in regular cycles. The rotation can be two/three/four-year rotations, etc.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Fallow

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Temporary or permanent unuse of part of cultivated areas.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Irrigation

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Spreading water on crops to promote and accelerate growth. Irrigation relies on the use of water pumped from the soil or from a watercourse, or even from bodies of water created for this purpose.
Source
according to the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of 2017

Marine turbine

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Submerged turbine that uses the energy of marine currents, and sometimes fluvial, to produce electricity.
Source
according to CELF

Water-related activity

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Economic activity that uses water and services related to water use.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and IOWater