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Flora

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant species growing in a given geographical area or environment.
Source
according to ADEME

Aquatic flora

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Plant species growing in aquatic environments.
Source
according to ADEME

Cover crops

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

The vegetation that covers the ground. The vegetation cover of a soil is an agri-environmental good practice which induces benefits, such as the mitigation of nitrogen pollution, soil protection and a greater biodiversity.

Source
According to Unesco

Hydrophyte

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
It is an aquatic plant whose leaves and flowers are submerged. The hydrophytic plant grows attached to the bottom of aquatic environments or floating freely in areas of low current. For example, watercress, water lilies or duckweeds are hydrophytic plants.
Source
according to AFB

Helophyte

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
It is a semi-aquatic plant whose leaves and flowers are emerged at least partly. The helophytic plant grows on the banks or the bottom of aquatic environments, when the water depth is sufficiently low and when the bottom and weak current allow the fixation of the roots. For example, the common reed is a helophytic species
Source
according to AFB

Naturalized species

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens technique

An introduced species that meets ecological conditions favourable to its sustainable establishment over time that can establish populations in an autonomous manner and integrated into the ecosystem.

Source
according to MNHN

Invasive Alien Species

Updated on 01/12/2020
Définition
Sens commun

A species that is indigenous or non-native to a given territory, proliferates and extends its range due to an increase in population density.

Source
according to MNHN

Marine protected area (AMP)

Updated on 13/07/2021
Définition
Sens commun

Espaces délimités en mer qui répondent à des objectifs de protection de la nature à long terme. Le code de l’environnement reconnaît différentes catégories d’aires marines protégées. La plupart des aires marines protégées permettent de concilier les enjeux de protection et le développement durable d’activités.

Le code de l'environnement (article L334-1 modifié le 24/07/2019), reconnaît différentes catégories d'aires marines protégées qui répondent chacune à des objectifs propres tout en étant complémentaires.

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'écologie et l'Ifremer
Sens technique

Espaces  délimités  en  mer  au  sein  duquel  un  objectif  de  protection  de  la  nature  à  long terme a été défini, objectif pour lequel un certain nombre de mesures de gestion sont mises en œuvre : suivi scientifique, programme  d’actions,  chartes  de  bonne  conduite,  protection  du  domaine  public  maritime,  réglementations,  surveillance,  information  du  public,  etc.  Sur  la  base  de  cette  définition,  l’objectif de protection n’est pas exclusif d’autres objectifs, notamment de développement économique maîtrisé (utilisation et exploitation durables des ressources marines).

Pour en savoir plus :

LOI n° 2006-436 du 14 avril 2006 relative aux parcs nationaux, aux parcs naturels marins et aux parcs naturels régionaux  et,

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'écologie

Living communities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All living organisms (animals and plants including microorganisms) that occupy a given ecosystem. This group of living organisms is characterized by a specific composition and by interdependence phenomena. It occupies an area known as biotope and with the latter makes an ecosystem. A biocenosis changes over time (pioneer phase, intermediate phase and equilibrium phase).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Fauna and flora habitats directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and  fauna and flora, known DHFF Directive. It aims to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of natural habitats - terrestrial or aquatic - and wild species of plants and animals of community interest. It obliges membres of  states designate

Source
According to the Ministry for the environment and AFB

Revegetation

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun
All operations to cover a space with vegetation, grass, shrubs or trees.
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Indicator species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Species used to characterize the functional ecological status of French streams: trout (brown trout) for salmonid habitats (usually cold mountain freshwaters or close to reliefs), pike for cyprinid habitats (slow lowland streams), and the grayling or white water cyprinids (barbel, dace, etc) for intermediate environments. These species are demanding and found in all natural environments with good status.
Source
According to AFB

Floristic list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Abundance of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Species of community interest

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Endangered or vulnerable or rare or endemic species (i.e. living on a well-defined territory) listed either in Annex II of fauna and flora habitats directive, then special areas of conservation have to be designated, or in Annexes IV or V of the fauna and flora habitats directive, and for which protective measures must be implemented on the whole territory.

Source
According to MNHN

Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Integrated farming/agriculture

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Agricultural practice that applies to the production that takes into account environmental protection, health and animal welfare. In France, the concept is regulated by public authorities (ministries in charge of agriculture and ecology) and the promotion is made by the FARRE network (forum of integrated farming respectful of the environment). Certification is awarded to farmers who respect the principles of sustainable agriculture.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture

Agronomy

Updated on 11/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Sciences and techniques that aim at understanding the relationships between crops, environments and agricultural techniques, and at improving agriculture.

Source
according to the French Association of Agronomy

Water balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Ratio between inflows to (e.g. precipitation, runoff, capillary rise) and outflows (e.g. transpiration or evaporation) from a given system over a given time interval, which gives the variation in water storage. The water balance allows knowing the soil water storage capacity, potentially usable for different purposes (agriculture or other).
Source
according to INRA and Aquitaine Chamber of Agriculture

Nitrogen cycle

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

All of the processes and conversions of nitrogen, into different forms, in the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere (nitrous oxide, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen).

Source
according to the Ministry of Environment

Weed control

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Use of mechanical means (tillage, hoeing, weeding) or chemical treatments (weed killers) to eliminate unwanted plant species.
Source
according to the Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Eau blanche – milky water

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Wastewater produced during the manufacture of paper or water from the cleaning of premises and equipment of milking parlours, dairies or cheese factories.
Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Land application of sewage sludge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of spreading organic matter-laden wastewater over a surface, to treat it by percolation into the soil while feeding soils poor in organic matter.
Source
according to IFREMER

Land application of animal manure

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
The spreading of animal excreta on a surface, so as to fertilise it. In animal excreta, cattle effluents are largely dominant and are mainly in the form of manure. Slurry concerns part of the cattle effluent and almost all pig breeding. Poultry droppings, whose fertilising effect is powerful, can locally represent significant tonnages.
Source
according to IFREMER and ADEME

Soil erosion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Thinning of the topsoil of a field as a result of the natural erosive forces of water and wind, or as a result of agricultural activities such as tillage. Soil erosion lowers the productivity of the land and contributes to the pollution of adjacent rivers, wetlands and lakes.
Source
according to Ontario Ministry of Agriculture

Farm

Updated on 07/03/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Place where an agricultural activity occurs (livestock or crops).

Source
according to IOWater
Sens technique

Economic and production unit that simultaneously meets three conditions: the unit has an agricultural activity, reaches or exceeds a certain dimension (surface area, number of animals, production...) and is under day-to-day and independent management.

Source
according to the Ministry of Agriculture
Sens réglementaire

According to European Regulation (EU) 2018/1091 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 July 2018 concerning integrated statistics on agricultural holdings, an agricultural holding is an individual unit, from a technical and economic point of view, which has a management and carrying out economic activities in the field of agriculture, in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1893/2006, falling within groups A.01.1, A.01.2, A.01.3, A.01.4, A.01.5 or the "maintenance of agricultural land under good agricultural and environmental conditions" of group A.01.6 on the economic territory of the Union, as a primary or secondary activity. For activities in class A.01.49, only the following activities are included: "breeding of semi-domestic animals or other live animals" (except for the breeding of insects) and "beekeeping and production of honey and beeswax."

Source
according to the European Parliament