Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.
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Articulated invertebrate animal which have the characteristic of breathing through trachea. Some insects have become aquatic (representing 3% of insects) but have retained this aerial breathing.
Set of aquatic vertebrate animals which have the characteristic of being viviparous: the female lets the young grow in its belly, from which they get out alive. Marine mammals living in the oceans (cetaceans), as well as various freshwater species, such as the European otter, are aquatic mammals. Their mode of operation depends on the aquatic ecosystem where they live.
Animal visible to the naked eye (ie larger than 0.5 mm) that does not have a skeleton, bone or cartilage.
Farming of filter-feeding molluscs of the family Mytilidae called "mussels", more often marine mussels (by distinction of freshwater mussels).
An introduced species that meets ecological conditions favourable to its sustainable establishment over time that can establish populations in an autonomous manner and integrated into the ecosystem.
A species that is indigenous or non-native to a given territory, proliferates and extends its range due to an increase in population density.
A migratory species that migrates from the sea to rivers to reproduce. One example is salmon.
A migratory species that migrates down rivers to breed at sea. An example is the European eel.
A class of tetrapod, viviparous vertebrate animals, which are essentially characterized by the presence of udders, hairs, a four-cavity heart, a developed nervous and encephalic system, a constant internal temperature and pulmonary-type respiration.
Refers to fish that migrate from river waters to the sea or vice versa, once or several times during their lifetime. We can distinguish anadromous species that migrate up rivers to reproduce and catadromous species that most often live in fresh water and will reproduce at sea.
Directive 2009/147/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 30 novembre 2009 concernant la conservation des oiseaux sauvages. Elle vise la conservation de tous les oiseaux sauvages dans l’Union européenne (UE) en fixant des règles pour leur protection, leur conservation, leur gestion et leur régulation. Elle s’applique aux oiseaux ainsi qu’à leurs œufs, à leurs nids et à leurs habitats. Elle codifie la directive adoptée initialement en 1979 (directive 79/409/CEE).
La directive 2009/147/CE a été modifiée en 2019 par le règlement (UE) 2019/1010, lequel simplifie, tout en s’y conformant, les obligations de déclaration dans le domaine du droit de l’environnement.
All living organisms (animals and plants including microorganisms) that occupy a given ecosystem. This group of living organisms is characterized by a specific composition and by interdependence phenomena. It occupies an area known as biotope and with the latter makes an ecosystem. A biocenosis changes over time (pioneer phase, intermediate phase and equilibrium phase).
Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and fauna and flora, known DHFF Directive. It aims to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of natural habitats - terrestrial or aquatic - and wild species of plants and animals of community interest. It obliges membres of states designate
Endangered or vulnerable or rare or endemic species (i.e. living on a well-defined territory) listed either in Annex II of fauna and flora habitats directive, then special areas of conservation have to be designated, or in Annexes IV or V of the fauna and flora habitats directive, and for which protective measures must be implemented on the whole territory.
Fish species belonging to the Clupeidae family (such as sardine and herring). The allis shad are among the anadromous species (i.e. which swim up rivers to spawn in the middle part of the rivers). As such, their populations have paid a heavy price to river development (dams without fish pass facilities, extraction of gravel changing the spawning, etc). Their presence is therefore a good indicator of the status of a river development. Two species of allis shad are present (and exploited) in French waters: the allis shad (Alosa Alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax).
Aquatic vertebrate that breathes through gills and has both limbs represented by fins (pectoral and pelvic). Fish are usually oviparous.