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Water abstraction

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Extraction of fresh water from a groundwater source or surface, permanently or temporarily, and conveyed to the place of use. Water abstractions include all activities related levies generated by agriculture, industry (including energy), the supply of drinking water, or other (mineral spring authorized, production artificial snow).

Source
according to AFB, IOWater, SOeS and OCDE

Groundwater depletion

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Permanent or temporary drop in the piezometric level of groundwater, due to a natural or artificial change in its recharge or abstraction.
Source
according to the Adour-Garonne Water Agency and BRGM

Artificial groundwater recharge

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Man action of replenishing an aquifer. The artificial recharge of an aquifer can be used to regulate water resources by storing water, to treat wastewater or to recover aquifer drawdown (in volume or pressure) caused by pumping, but also to limit or prevent salt water intrusions into coastal aquifers to ensure the sustainability of their quality. It is carried out by infiltration from surface structures (basins, ditches) or by injection wells and boreholes.
Source
according to BRGM

Underground dam

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A groundwater impoundment structure built across underground water channels. The underground dams are built in the sub-soil. They store water in geological formations, retain groundwater and require pumping facilities to make water usable.
Source
according to the Japanese Ministry of the Environment

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Sewage farm

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
An area receiving, through a network of buried pipes, the clarified waters coming out of an all-water pit and having enabling conditions for the purification and drainage of the treated wastewater towards the deeper layers of the subsoil.
Source
according to Alpes Géo Conseil

Aquifer decontamination

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Action to remove pollution from groundwater. Water decontamination can use different approaches (physical, chemical or biological), in situ (directly underground) or ex situ (water pumping, treatment and reinjection).
Source
according to the University of Picardy

Groundwater/river exchange

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Exchange of water in one direction or the other between an aquifer and a river. Depending on the level of the water line, and on the season, groundwater feeds the river or is fed by it, particularly during floods. In the case of karst, these relationships are important and localised.
Source
according to AFB

Groundwater Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics that mathematically studies the natural gravity flow (of an aquifer) or the induced flow (by drainage or pumping, for example) of free groundwater in permeable media, under the effect of a hydraulic or pressure gradient.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Groundwater level rising

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Rising of the groundwater level or of the piezometric surface due to a recharge after depletion.
Source
according to UNESCO

Groundwater restoration/remediation

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Corrective action to improve the quality of groundwater.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment

Groundwater-fed river

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Stream whose water comes mainly from the aquifer it drains.
Source
according to French National Committee of Hydrological Sciences

Underground river

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Stream passing through a very large cavity (e.g. a cave or a cavern) or a set of large communicating cavities.
Source
according to UNESCO

Spring

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Water that comes naturally out of the ground, or by metonymy the point where this water rushes out. The spring is often the headwaters of a watercourse, but springs can feed ponds or lakes or flow directly into the sea, or produce water that disappears again into the ground.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Aquifer vulnerability

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Risk of infiltration of pollutants from the surface, through the soil and unsaturated zone. The vulnerability of aquifers is intrinsic: it depends on the topographic (ground slope), pedological (permeability), geological context (permeability, thickness). A confined aquifer, covered by a low permeability formation (often clays) is not very vulnerable as compared to an unconfined aquifer.
Source
according to BRGM

Groundwater protection

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Set of regulations and measures taken to protect groundwater resources.
Source
according to the Regional Health Agency (ARS) of Languedoc-Roussillon

Underground disposal

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Discharge of effluents or pollutants on the ground or infiltration into the subsoil.
Source
according to the Ministry of the Environment and BRGM

Sedimentory basin

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Portion of the Earth's crust on which has been deposited, or still is depositing, many layers of sediment, produced by the alteration of preexisting rocks. Over time, significant accumulation of sediments causes the depression of the deposition zone, and allows the addition of new layers, creating a sedimentary basin.

Source
according to CNRS

Permeability

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Property of a porous solid to let water through.
Source
according to the French Dictionary of Surface Hydrology
Sens technique
Property of a body, a solid - especially a soil, a rock - to be penetrated and crossed by a fluid, water in particular, under the effect of a potential gradient. A parameter expressing quantitatively this property, with respect to the characteristics of the fluid, water in particular: flow that can pass through a unit section of the solid considered, under the effect of a hydraulic load gradient unit, under determined conditions of pressure and temperature (homogeneous size at a speed, noted K).
Source
According to the hydrologie.org website and Jean Margat, January 1999

Hydrosphere

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
All the world's waters, including oceans, seas, lakes and rivers, as well as groundwater and ice.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Unsaturated zone

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Subsurface zone not completely saturated with water (coexistence of water and air in the interstices of the rock) above the surface of an unconfined aquifer and where flows are vertical.
Source
according to BRGM and AFB

Groundwater recharge

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

According to the hydro-geological meaning, a water volume supplying an aquifer over a given time. Rainfalls are mainly recharging groundwater. Unconfined groundwaters are recharged rather fast at each rainfall event. The rise in water levels and rainfall events are observed on a piezometric curve.

Source
According to BRGM

Aquifer

Updated on 19/06/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Continuous or discontinuous geological formation, containing temporary or permanent water that can be mobilized. It consists of permeable rock (porous or fractured formation) able to provide water naturally or though exploitation (drainage, pumping).

Source
According to BRGM

Elevation of the piezometric record

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Elevation defined either in NGF level (French levelling network) or in relative depth. The NGF level, established under the control of the National Geographic Institute (IGN), is the reference. NGF can indeed express altitudes in one and unique reference system, i.e. as compared to the same and unique fundamental point (or "origin-zero" or point zero). The "0" level is the average sea level in Marseilles. This point is used to determine the altitude of any other point. The elevation of the piezometric record can also be expressed in relative depth with respect to the benchmark of the

Source
According to BRGM