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Amphibian

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Vertebrate animal that has the characteristic of starting its life in the water. At birth, an amphibian breathes through its gills, like a fish. As an adult he now has lungs through which he can breathe freely, but he continues to absorb most of the oxygen he needs through the skin.

Source
according to Aquitaine Wildlife Observatory (AWO)

Cetacean

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Aquatic mammal with front flippers and a horizontal caudal fin – the tail -. For example, whales, sperm whales and dolphins are cetaceans
Source
according to the Robert dictionary

Aquatic insect

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Articulated invertebrate animal which have the characteristic of breathing through trachea. Some insects have become aquatic (representing 3% of insects) but have retained this aerial breathing.

Source
according to INRA

Aquatic mammal

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun

Set of aquatic vertebrate animals which have the characteristic of being viviparous: the female lets the young grow in its belly, from which they get out alive. Marine mammals living in the oceans (cetaceans), as well as various freshwater species, such as the European otter, are aquatic mammals. Their mode of operation depends on the aquatic ecosystem where they live.

Source
according to Loire-Bretagne Water Agency

Macro-invertebrate

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Animal visible to the naked eye (ie larger than 0.5 mm) that does not have a skeleton, bone or cartilage.

Source
d'après Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie

Mussel farming

Updated on 27/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Farming of filter-feeding molluscs of the family Mytilidae called "mussels", more often marine mussels (by distinction of freshwater mussels).

Source
d'après OIEau

Naturalized species

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens technique

An introduced species that meets ecological conditions favourable to its sustainable establishment over time that can establish populations in an autonomous manner and integrated into the ecosystem.

Source
according to MNHN

Invasive Alien Species

Updated on 01/12/2020
Définition
Sens commun

A species that is indigenous or non-native to a given territory, proliferates and extends its range due to an increase in population density.

Source
according to MNHN

Anadromous

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A migratory species that migrates from the sea to rivers to reproduce. One example is salmon.

Source
according to MNHN and IOWater

Catadrome

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A migratory species that migrates down rivers to breed at sea. An example is the European eel.

Source
according to MNHN and IOWater

Mammal

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

A class of tetrapod, viviparous vertebrate animals, which are essentially characterized by the presence of udders, hairs, a four-cavity heart, a developed nervous and encephalic system, a constant internal temperature and pulmonary-type respiration.

Source
according to CNRTL

Amphidromous

Updated on 08/07/2019
Définition
Sens commun

Refers to fish that migrate from river waters to the sea or vice versa, once or several times during their lifetime. We can distinguish anadromous species that migrate up rivers to reproduce and catadromous species that most often live in fresh water and will reproduce at sea.

Source
according to Larousse dictionary and IOWater

Marine protected area (AMP)

Updated on 13/07/2021
Définition
Sens commun

Espaces délimités en mer qui répondent à des objectifs de protection de la nature à long terme. Le code de l’environnement reconnaît différentes catégories d’aires marines protégées. La plupart des aires marines protégées permettent de concilier les enjeux de protection et le développement durable d’activités.

Le code de l'environnement (article L334-1 modifié le 24/07/2019), reconnaît différentes catégories d'aires marines protégées qui répondent chacune à des objectifs propres tout en étant complémentaires.

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'écologie et l'Ifremer
Sens technique

Espaces  délimités  en  mer  au  sein  duquel  un  objectif  de  protection  de  la  nature  à  long terme a été défini, objectif pour lequel un certain nombre de mesures de gestion sont mises en œuvre : suivi scientifique, programme  d’actions,  chartes  de  bonne  conduite,  protection  du  domaine  public  maritime,  réglementations,  surveillance,  information  du  public,  etc.  Sur  la  base  de  cette  définition,  l’objectif de protection n’est pas exclusif d’autres objectifs, notamment de développement économique maîtrisé (utilisation et exploitation durables des ressources marines).

Pour en savoir plus :

LOI n° 2006-436 du 14 avril 2006 relative aux parcs nationaux, aux parcs naturels marins et aux parcs naturels régionaux  et,

Source
d'après Ministère chargé de l'écologie

Directive on the conservation of wild birds

Updated on 06/01/2021
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Directive 2009/147/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 30 novembre 2009 concernant la conservation des oiseaux sauvages. Elle vise la conservation de tous les oiseaux sauvages dans l’Union européenne (UE) en fixant des règles pour leur protection, leur conservation, leur gestion et leur régulation. Elle s’applique aux oiseaux ainsi qu’à leurs œufs, à leurs nids et à leurs habitats. Elle codifie la directive adoptée initialement en 1979 (directive 79/409/CEE).
La directive 2009/147/CE a été modifiée en 2019 par le règlement (UE) 2019/1010, lequel simplifie, tout en s’y conformant, les obligations de déclaration dans le domaine du droit de l’environnement.

Source
d'après Eur-lex

Directive on the conservation of wild birds

Updated on 05/10/2021
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Directive  2009/147/CE  du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 30 novembre 2009  concernant  la  conservation  des  oiseaux  sauvages :

Elle vise à la conservation de tous les oiseaux sauvages dans l’Union européenne (UE) en fixant des règles pour leur protection, leur conservation, leur gestion et leur régulation. Elle s’applique aux oiseaux ainsi qu’à leurs œufs, à leurs nids et à leurs habitats. Les pays de l’UE classent en zones de protection spéciale (ZPS) les territoires les plus appropriés en nombre et en superficie à la conservation de ces espèces dans les zones maritimes et terrestres d’application de la présente directive. Une attention particulière doit être portée aux zones humides. Les ZPS font partie du réseau de sites protégés Natura 2000, au même titre que les…

Source
d'après Eur-lex

Gastropod

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Creeping mollusc often having a spiral shell wherein its visceral mass is wound up and protected, and which moves by contraction of its broad single foot.
Source
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and IOWater

Living communities

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All living organisms (animals and plants including microorganisms) that occupy a given ecosystem. This group of living organisms is characterized by a specific composition and by interdependence phenomena. It occupies an area known as biotope and with the latter makes an ecosystem. A biocenosis changes over time (pioneer phase, intermediate phase and equilibrium phase).

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Fauna and flora habitats directive

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Directive 92/43 / EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and  fauna and flora, known DHFF Directive. It aims to contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity by defining a common framework for the conservation of natural habitats - terrestrial or aquatic - and wild species of plants and animals of community interest. It obliges membres of  states designate

Source
According to the Ministry for the environment and AFB

Migratory fish

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Fish that move periodically between their spawning and feeding grounds (home to the juveniles and adults). Some species live alternately in freshwater and seawater (diadromous fish), they are called "highly migratory species".
Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and AFB

Indicator species

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Species used to characterize the functional ecological status of French streams: trout (brown trout) for salmonid habitats (usually cold mountain freshwaters or close to reliefs), pike for cyprinid habitats (slow lowland streams), and the grayling or white water cyprinids (barbel, dace, etc) for intermediate environments. These species are demanding and found in all natural environments with good status.
Source
According to AFB

Benthic invertebrate

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Organism which populates the bottom of rivers and lives on the surface in the interstices of the substrate. For a great part, they are larvae, insects, molluscs and worms.
Source
According to AFB

Faunal list

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Enumeration of each taxa present in one or more basic hydro-biological samples taken during the same sample operation.

Source
According to AFB

Species of community interest

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens réglementaire

Endangered or vulnerable or rare or endemic species (i.e. living on a well-defined territory) listed either in Annex II of fauna and flora habitats directive, then special areas of conservation have to be designated, or in Annexes IV or V of the fauna and flora habitats directive, and for which protective measures must be implemented on the whole territory.

Source
According to MNHN

Allis shad

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Fish species belonging to the Clupeidae family (such as sardine and herring). The allis shad are among the anadromous species (i.e. which swim up rivers to spawn in the middle part of the rivers). As such, their populations have paid a heavy price to river development (dams without fish pass facilities, extraction of gravel changing the spawning, etc). Their presence is therefore a good indicator of the status of a river development. Two species of allis shad are present (and exploited) in French waters: the allis shad (Alosa Alosa) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax).

Source
According to Ifremer

shellfish

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Usually refers to a mollusc, generally from the sea, bearing a shell (shell-forming). At the regulatory level (health regulations), the term "shellfish" refers to the following marine animals: bivalve molluscs (filter feeder), gastropod molluscs, sea urchins (echinoderms) and sea squirts (tunicates).
Source
According to Ifremer