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Abstraction supply zones

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens technique

Area on which the water that soaks into the ground supplies the abstraction for drinking water.

Source
According to the Ministry for the Environment and the Ministry for the Agriculture

Flood warning

Updated on 08/04/2020
Définition
Sens commun

Warning issued in advance by the departmental flood forecasting services. In the event of heavy rainfall or hydrological alert, a flood warning is sent to the Prefect, who then alerts the mayors of the catchment areas concerned.

Source
according to OFB
Sens technique

Warning issued in advance by a special state service (flood forecasting service). In the event of a rainfall or hydrological alert (triggering when thresholds are exceeded), the flood forecasting service offers the Prefect the alert of the mayors of the watersheds concerned. As a severe overflow flood, the flood warning service broadcasts, for prefects and mayors, hydrological situation bulletins and information on the evolution of water levels . In 1994, 54 flood warning services monitored 16,000 km of waterways in France using automated measurement networks.

Source
According to Ministry of the Environment and OFB

Hydrological balance

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Accounting of the changes in water resources (stream flows, groundwater level, effective rainfall) of an area (for example a catchment area) based on meteorological, piezometric or hydrological information.
Source
according to AFB

Hydropower plant

Updated on 04/12/2018
Définition
Sens commun
Facility that produces electricity by the force of moving water.
Source
according to AFB
Sens technique
Hydroelectric facility transforming hydraulic energy into electricity, whose power usually varies from a few kW to 4,500 kW.
Source
according to IFREMER

Dam release

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Operation to lower water level and increase outflow rates to discharge some of the sediment retained by a dam. A dam release consists in opening the gates, thus limiting the silting of the dam reservoir and the risk of flooding. This operation, although common in the management of harnessed rivers, can have adverse effects on the downstream environment (decrease of oxygen levels in water, obstruction of fish gills by suspended solids, etc.).
Source
according to ISTREA

Silting

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Deposit of fine sediments made of rock particles and silt or clay. Siltation is a form of sedimentation with mud. Streams carry a few million cubic meters of sediment each year. Their deposit causes the silting of these rivers, canals, and bodies of water. This quite natural phenomenon is accentuated by a flat topography, low flows, erosion processes, as well as industrial and urban discharges.
Source
according to AFB and INRA

River hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of Hydraulics which mainly deals with the free surface flow of water in natural or artificial streams (e.g. canals). River hydraulics is necessary for the design, development and construction of hydraulic structures, such as dikes, sills and weirs.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Marine hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics related to the marine and coastal environments, which deals with swells, currents, dispersion and water quality, sedimentology, seaworthiness and the keeping of ships at station, or the interaction between waves and structures.
Source
according to Egis

Groundwater Hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
A branch of hydraulics that mathematically studies the natural gravity flow (of an aquifer) or the induced flow (by drainage or pumping, for example) of free groundwater in permeable media, under the effect of a hydraulic or pressure gradient.
Source
according to Wikipedia

Torrential hydraulics

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Branch of hydraulics relating to flows in areas with steep slopes.
Source
according to Water torrents & mountain rivers

Artificial rain

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Rain caused by the disturbance of a microphysical equilibrium occurring in clouds. Artificial rain can be produced by seeding clouds, with the introduction of ice-forming nucleuses of silver iodide.
Source
National Association for the Study and Control of Weather Calamities

Drainage design rainfall

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Artificial rain event, representative of the local rainfall and to which it is possible to associate recurrence intervals.
Source
according to the National Higher School of electrical engineering, electronics, computer science, hydraulics and telecommunication

Flow regime

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Way in which the fluid particles move together during a flow.
Source
according to the National Higher School of Hydrology

Soil moisture index

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
  Assessing the amount of water available in a soil, as compared to its optimal reserve (useful reserve). When the soil moisture index (SWI) is close to 1, the soil is wet (greater than 1, the SWI indicates that the soil tends to saturation). Conversely, when it tends to 0, the soil is under water stress (less than 0, it indicates that the soil is very dry).
Source
according to AFB

Hydrological profile

Updated on 06/09/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Methodology, based on the study of stream flows, which allows assessing the water inflow that is specific to any section of the river.
Source
according to Michel Deshaies (geographer)

Permeability

Updated on 25/02/2019
Définition
Sens commun
Property of a porous solid to let water through.
Source
according to the French Dictionary of Surface Hydrology
Sens technique
Property of a body, a solid - especially a soil, a rock - to be penetrated and crossed by a fluid, water in particular, under the effect of a potential gradient. A parameter expressing quantitatively this property, with respect to the characteristics of the fluid, water in particular: flow that can pass through a unit section of the solid considered, under the effect of a hydraulic load gradient unit, under determined conditions of pressure and temperature (homogeneous size at a speed, noted K).
Source
According to the hydrologie.org website and Jean Margat, January 1999

Hydrometric station

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Measuring station at which data on water in rivers, bodies of water or reservoirs are obtained on one or more of the following elements: water depth, flow rate, sediment transport and deposit, water temperature and other physical properties of water, characteristics of ice cover and chemical properties of water.
Source
According to BRGM

Fluvial dynamics

Updated on 04/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of potamology (branch of hydrology that deals with rivers and their regime) which deals with the flow in watercourses and the impact on the bed material of the forces that it brings into play.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood control

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Action of limiting a peak flow, either by storage in a specific reservoir, or by expanding the flood plain.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood return period

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Long-term average interval of time or number of years within which a flood of a given height will be equalled or exceeded, e.g. a flood with a 10-year return period has every year 1 out of 10 chances to occur (called 10-year flood). This is then called the flood reference 0.1.
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Flood forecasting service

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Service in charge of predicting hazardous situations caused by heavy floods, in partnership with Météo-France. The flood forecasting Service (SPC) warns the Prefect in case of alarm and prepares the information to be disseminated to the mayors. The Civil Protection Service of the prefecture is in turn responsible for alerting the mayors by suitable means and providing them with the information developed by the
Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Area for flood storage purpose

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

Natural or agricultural floodplain (not currently urbanized), that can be extended to floods whose occurrence is higher than the hundred-year flood, as part of a hydrogeomorphical approach. When local stakes require it (level of hazards, areas considered important, etc), floodplains, which, at the date of approval of the river basin management plan (SDAGE), are classified "to be urbanized" but are not yet highly urbanized, may be considered, for their part not yet urbanized, as areas for flood storage purpose.

Source
According to Rhine-Meuse Water Agency

Hydrosystem functioning

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique

All physical and biological phenomena (water, erosion, etc), and their interactions within the river system or hydrosystem. Thus the great diversity of plant and animal communities (Living communities) is expressed only by river dynamics (alternating low and high-flow levels, deposits and erosion, etc). These phenomena are influenced by the different uses and can contribute to meet the latter.

Source
According to the Ministry of Ecology

Hydrographic region

Updated on 13/07/2018
Définition
Sens technique
Part of a river basin, and the first order of the hydrographic division of the French territory. This division indeed includes all four parts of the French territory hierarchized according to increasing drainage systems: Hydrographic Region (1st order), hydrographic Sector (2nd order), hydrographic Sub-sector (3rd order), hydrographic area (4th order). A sector is cut into a maximum of 10 sub-sectors and a sub-sector is cut into a maximum of 10 hydrographic areas.
Source
According to AFB and IOWater