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Directive 2009/147/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 30 novembre 2009 concernant la conservation des oiseaux sauvages. Elle vise la conservation de tous les oiseaux sauvages dans l’Union européenne (UE) en fixant des règles pour leur protection, leur conservation, leur gestion et leur régulation. Elle s’applique aux oiseaux ainsi qu’à leurs œufs, à leurs nids et à leurs habitats. Elle codifie la directive adoptée initialement en 1979 (directive 79/409/CEE).
La directive 2009/147/CE a été modifiée en 2019 par le règlement (UE) 2019/1010, lequel simplifie, tout en s’y conformant, les obligations de déclaration dans le domaine du droit de l’environnement.
Area which is part of the scientific inventory developed under an international program of Birdlife International to identify the most favorable areas for the conservation of wild birds.
Area designated under the 1979 Birds Directive 79/409 / EEC. Areas of importance for the conservation of birds (IBAs) are sites that have been identified as important for certain bird species (breeding areas, seabirds). wintering or migration relay areas) during the scientific inventory program launched by the NGO Birdlife International. They don't have a particular legal status. The most suitable sites for the conservation of the most endangered birds are classified totally or partially in Special Protection Areas (SPAs). The latter, associated with the Special Areas of Conservation constitute the network of Natura 2000 sites.
Areas established pursuant to EEC Directive 79/409 on the protection of birds and their habitats. They have been delineated by the network of French ornithologists on the basis of the criteria proposed in a methodological note. After validation, they are designated to be designated Special Protection Areas (SPAs).
Natural environment marked by the temporary or permanent presence of water, hosting a specific flora and fauna. Examples include a marsh, bog, pond, pond, pond, estuary, etc.
An area where water, whether fresh, salty or brackish, is the main factor controlling the natural environment and the associated animal and plant life. Wetlands are fed by stream flow and/or rising water tables and are shaped by the alternation of high and low water levels. Examples include streams, peat bogs, ponds, ponds, ponds, banks, floodplains, salt meadows, mudflats, coastal marshes, estuaries. These areas are transition spaces between land and water (they are ecotones). The vegetation present has a marked hygrophilic character (which absorbs water). Like all these types of particular spaces, it has a strong biological potential (specific fauna and flora) and have a role in regulating flow and improving water quality.
There are several regulatory definitions of the term "Wetland" depending on the text:
- According to article L211-1 of the Environmental Code, "wetlands are defined as "land, whether or not exploited, usually flooded or gorged with fresh, salty or brackish water on a permanent or temporary basis; vegetation, where it exists, is dominated by hygrophilic plants for at least part of the year".
- According to article R.211-108 of the Environmental Code, which specifies article L211-1: the criteria to be used to define a wetland are related to the morphology of the soil related to the prolonged presence of water of natural origin and the possible presence of hygrophilic plants, in the absence of hygrophilic vegetation, the morphology of the soil is sufficient to define a wetland, the delimitation of wetlands is carried out using flood or groundwater levels, or the frequencies and amplitudes of the tides.
- According to Article 1.1 of the RAMSAR Convention, a wetland is "an area of marshes, fens, peatlands or natural or artificial, permanent or temporary waters, where the water is stagnant or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of…